The Business Times reported on 17 March 2022 that “recovery in visitor arrivals to Singapore is expected to pick up further over the course of 2022 to benefit hotels in Singapore as usage of the Vaccinated Travel Lane (VTL) scheme continues to grow”.
New initiatives that will further boost visitor arrivals were also announced by the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) such as the planned expansion of Resorts World Sentosa, recent extension of Singapore’s contract to host the Formula One Singapore Grand Prix, and several major MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) events for 2022.
However, challenges such as pandemic-driven cost increases, the risk of new Covid-19 variants and the delayed reopening of travel to and from China would mean that for hotel operators to remain viable, stringent cost saving measures are of paramount importance.
- Explain the term “costs” as used in managerial accounting and show how costs are different from expenses as used in financial accounting. In the context of the hotel industry, give four (4) examples of costs.
- Discuss why in management accounting, so much attention is focused on costs and
- Examine how the understanding of cost behaviour can help the hotel
- Explain the meaning of cost objects. Give four (4) examples of cost objects from the hotel industry. Show why managers might be interested in knowing the costs.
- When analysing cost behaviour, explain the meaning of “level of activity”. Give four (4) examples of activity in the hotel industry.
The following cost data for the year ending 30 June 2022 relate to Aggro-tech Ltd.
|Drone Division||Fertiliser Division|
|Inventories at 1 July 2021|
|Work in process||?||175,000|
|Inventories at 30 June 2022|
|Work in process||6,250||?|
|Direct material used||?||475,000|
|Purchases of raw materials||?||575,000|
|Actual manufacturing overhead||315,000||2,238,750|
|Selling and administrative expenses||?||?|
|Total manufacturing costs||537,500||3,850,000|
|Cost of goods manufactured||550,000||3,875,000|
|Cost of goods available for sale||575,000||?|
|Cost of goods sold||?||3,963,750|
The company uses normal costing and manufacturing overhead is applied at the rate of 200% of direct labor cost.
Over or under-applied manufacturing overhead is closed on an annual basis to the cost of goods sold and this has been included in the above data.
- Determine the missing amounts in each of the divisions shown
- Calculate the amounts to be charged to work in process, finished goods inventory and cost of goods sold for the Fertiliser Division at the end of 30 June 2022 if proration method is used.
- Prepare the necessary journal entries for (b).
Present all workings in a clear and succinct manner.
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