Article Summary As a result of the growing challenge of obesity and drive for weight loss many regimens have been proposed that are aimed at attaining this objective. Scholars Bhutani, Klempel, Kroeger, Aggour, Calvo, Trepanowski, Hoddy and Varady (2013) in their study sought to look at the effect of exercise combined with alternate day fasting as effective mechanisms for weight loss. Their study was motivated by past studies that have asserted that when alternate day fasting is combined with exercise it leads to about 7% more weight loss in a period of 12 weeks; this is would not have been possible in case the two were done separately (Bhutani, Kroeger, Trepanowski and Varady, 2012). The scholars therefore wanted to prove the validity of these assertions since they were yet to be proved. The objective of this study was to determine how a combination of alternate day fasting combined with exercises leads to behavioral adaptation and their effect on weight loss. These concepts were inspired by previous studies which had suggested that increased cognitive restraints and lowered hunger levels in obese individuals is what contributed towards weight loss (Elfhag and Rossner 2005). As such through the study, the scholars sought to answer key questions in the field which are yet to be adequately addressed pertaining to whether an obese person can exercise when fasting, whether such exercise increases their likelihood to cheat on their eating, if the timing of an exercise influences their likelihood to cheat, the impact of behavioral changes as well as weight loss. In terms of its design the study recruited 83 participants from a group of 146 interested parties form University of Illinois at Chicago campus and randomly assigned them to four groups namely those who combined ADF with endurance exercise, those who only engaged in ADF, those who engaged in exercise and a control group. The study took part for a period of 12 weeks where the participants were guided through their regimen practice and their measurements taken. The data obtained was analyzed through ANOVA. The results of experiment showed that those who combined ADF and exercise experienced a weight loss of 6 ± 4 kg, those who only engaged in ADF 3 ± 1 kg, and those who engaged in exercise only1 ± 0 kg while for the control group there were no change 0 ± 0 kg. In terms of exercise there was no significant change with 48 ± 2% on fast days and 52 ± 2%) on as feed days. On fast days those who had their exercise in the morning were not very different from those who opted for the afternoon with 20 ± 6% (morning) and 28 ± 5% (afternoon). On the likelihood to cheat of their fast day the level for afternoon was only17 ± 7% versus 10 ± 5% in the morning, thus showing no significant difference. The results also showed a decrease in hunger for the alternate day fasting group coupled with fullness and satisfaction after the period while for those who combined exercise with ADF experienced as well as the ADF group better restrained eating habits and reduced their level of uncontrolled eating. In conclusion the study proved that when ADF is combined with exercise they complement each other and leads to positive behavioral change coupled with weight loss in the long term that is steady. Article Critique A look at the article shows that the scholars did a great job in convincing their readers on the need for the study. With weight loss issues and obesity becoming a major concern in the modern society, the focus of the scholars was justified as they sought to prove the validity of regiments that have been widely proposed on weight loss and eating habits. The scholars were a bit comprehensive in their introduction to the two concepts and pointing the gaps that exists in the field with regards to answers on pertinent questions such as if an obese person can exercise when fasting, how these impacts their eating habits and so forth which remained unanswered. This gave their study significance since it sought to fill a gap and provide validity. Based on the subject matter the study and its findings are significant to individual looking to change their eating habits, lose weight and even provide training and instruction for obese persons struggling to lose weight. A look at the design of the study shows that the scholars had taken their time to analyze what they aimed to achieve and come with the best approach to use in order to achieve the results. The scholars hypothesized various aspects they aimed at ascertaining their validity through the study and took time to investigate them. The different aspects were identified and the study participants categorized in such a way that would ensure that the information sought is obtained and questions at hand answered. Further in order to get all answer all the questions, the study took a period of 12 weeks which was critical in analyzing the changes that occurred as a result of the regimen provided. To answer the various questions posed regular assessment was conducted on the participants on a daily basis which provided ample information to answer the questions effectively and contrast the impact of the regiments on dietary intake habits and weight loss. The study however spots some weakness and limitations which reduces its effectiveness significantly. The first is the number of the respondents, for all the four categories in the study the scholars indicated that only 16 respondents per group made it to the end. This adversely affects the study because it limits the likelihood to observe differences and even generalize to a bigger population. The study is also limited in the fact that for the participants in the combined ADF and exercise category, there was no telling how the two parameters affected fullness, satisfaction and hunger since they were not studied apart. Finally, the study was limited in that in energy intake the methods used to keep records was quite vague Despite these weaknesses, the study and its design have significant strengths that can be observed namely the fact that it’s very detailed and meticulous in outlining the steps are followed. This captures the diet protocols, exercise protocols, assessment of weight loss, adherence to exercise and ADF diet protocol, records on the intake of energy and macronutrient, assessment of the participants eating behavior and the assessment of the participant’s physical activity and its maintenance. Throughout the experiment period the scholars have mechanisms of maintaining all the records and collecting the data which makes the study comprehensive and insightful. The scholars also take their time to present the result in a clear manner making them easy for their readers to understand and gain meaningful insight. The scholars also go further and engage in a discussion of the results obtained and their implications enabling their readers to understand what they found and what it implies. They also place their findings in the perspective of the field by comparing their findings with those of others scholars that have undertaken similar studies and what they found. To summarize their study and its findings, the scholar offer a conclusion which appropriately sums up their study and the findings it unearths is a simplified manner that can be easily understood and applied. In general the study gave useful information in the field answering key questions and validating previously postulated concepts such as the effectiveness of combining exercise and alternate day fasting for weight loss and eating behavior changes The effects of fasting and exercising on metabolic rate Article summary: Fasting is one of the processes that is done to commemorate religious beliefs. One of the most common fasting holidays that is recognized worldwide is Ramadan which is normally among the Muslim community. Ramadan is known as the holiest month that is celebrated in the Muslim calendar; hence, healthy Muslim adolescents, together with adults, are expected to fast during this month. Ramadan is taken as one of the pillars of Islam that are observed worldwide. No one is expected to eat, drink, smoke, or engage in sexual activities from sunrise to sunset. People are allowed to consume food during the night without any form of restrictions. Food and frequency intake of fluids, the duration of sleep together with the ability of physical activity are likely to be reduced during the fasting period. During this period, people frequently experience high increased rates of dehydration, changes in the levels of hormones, changes in the performance of the muscles, an increase in the oxidation of lipids and the reduction in the resting metabolic rate. It is known that the energy changes, dehydration, the changes in the regularities of sleep and the circadian rhythm perturbation are among the factors that influence the rate of performance in the physical activities conducted during Ramadhan (Güvenç, 2012). The study was focused mainly on examining the effects that fasting during Ramadan has on the composition of the body, the performance during aerobic exercises, the heart rate and the level of blood lactate among other factors. The experiment was conducted on 16 young players of football who continued their practice during the month of Ramadan as they were in fasting. Sixteen male players were involved with a mean age of 17.4±1.2 years old, the body mass of 69.6±4.3 kg and the age of training of 5.1±1.3 years. The participants were willing to follow all the rules of Ramadan and avoid eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset. Their composition of the body, the status of hydration, the duration of sleep and dietary intake were measured based on four intervals. The intervals included before Ramadan, at the start of the period of Ramadan, immediately after Ramadan and two weeks after the season of Ramadan is over. Similarly, the heart rate, the rate of the perceived exertion responses, the performance in exercise, and the blood lactate were tested during this period each with an increase in the running test. The test results were measured through the use of the ANOVA and indicated that the percentage of the body fat, the body mass, and the fat free mass, the status of hydration, the time of daily sleeping and the amount of daily energy together with the intake of macronutrients did not change significantly for the players through the study. However, they experienced a significant decrease in the thickness of the skin fold over the time of the study. The rate of the perceived exertion increased at the submaximal loads while the blood lactate and the heart rate decreased. At the anaerobic responses, the peak running performance and the velocity of running improved. However, the improvements in the aerobics were perceived to be due to the effect of the pre-season training (Güvenç, 2012). Therefore, Ramadan fasting or general fasting is unlikely to have any detrimental impact on the performance of exercises of the players or their body composition. Article critique: The authors have done a conclusive job in convincing me of the reasons as to why the study was necessary. They have gone an extra mile in measuring different elements including the dietary intake, the blood lactate, the changes in body composition, the changes in the rates of exercise and the status of hydration to show any small changes as far as fasting during Ramadan is concerned. The purpose of the study has been well justified hence I believe that Ramadan fasting has little effects on the aerobic exercises of a soccer player so long as they maintain the exercises they had before the period of Ramadan started. This is the best type of experiment that would have been conducted to assess the effects of fasting on different elements related to exercise performance. Similarly, the techniques used in assessing the effects were employed appropriately hence addressed the question fully since it compared between both the anaerobic and aerobic exercises. The major weaknesses of the study as I observed, are that there was no practical usage of technology. Using technological equipment effectively in measuring the components tested would have helped in detecting even the smallest amount of change that wouldn’t be observed clearly. Therefore, this would have provided us with clear results as compared to the current results hence having more knowledge of the changes to the body during exercise as one is undergoing fasting. Second, the study limited its focus to youths who were playing soccer regularly hence had regular exercises. The adults who engage in any physical activity such as jogging should have been included in the study. It is possible that jogging during the fasting holiday can cause changes to their metabolism and other body functionalities. Such changes are likely to be detrimental especially when considering their age. Therefore, their inclusion in the study can help identify the effects and decide if they are to be avoided or not to prevent any health issues. Despite the weaknesses, I believe that the study had more strengths. First, it included personnel that is involved in regular exercises. It is true that soccer players have no break from their exercises despite the period. Therefore, the study helped in uncovering any doubts about whether they should continue their exercises during fasting or not. It helped indicate that since they don’t experience any significant negative impacts, fasting does not have to reduce the rate of their practicing. Similarly, using the ANOVA to analyze the data collected helped in providing more clear analysis. ANOVA is employed globally to ensure effective data analysis by most studies; hence, its use helps authenticate the data. Hence, the data can be used by soccer coaches worldwide. Finally, employing the different test sessions ensured that any changes that may occur in any season had been captured effectively. Otherwise, using a single session might have made the data inconclusive and difficult to apply in any circumstance. Article summary The main objective of the study was to understand the impacts of Ramadan intermittent fasting on performance activities of the judo athletes. This was analyzed through the evaluation of the aerobic and anaerobic exercises for the athletes as part of their normal training load. This study is based on various studies that had shown that RIF affects the availability of substrate and its utilization and thus the possibility of leading to diurnal dehydration. In general, these changes can cause psychological perturbations, which may have detrimental effects on sports. The study is specific in that; it addresses the effects which RIF has on the competent trained athletes who carry on scheduled training. Judo is a sport selected for the participants of this study and requires energy through anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Power obtained through aerobic and anaerobic is a very relevant factor of consideration in this sport and influenced by diet and substrate. The perceptions of coaches and athletes are put into consideration as they believe that athletes who are under fasting have challenges of not maintaining their training load and physical work activities. The entire research is a report of the perception and performance of the Judo athletes during the RIF. The subjects used in this study are male judo athletes who volunteered as members of the Tunisia junior national judo team. The span for the study was between October and December 2005. Participants selected had at least eight years of experience in the field, and at least 10 of them had been involved in international events for the sport. The selected members were the best at this time and represented various weight classes with 6 of them falling under 60kg. The procedures for the study were conducted on four occasions. The first occasion was done five days before the start of Ramadhan, the second and the third were in the middle of Ramadhan, and the last occasion was done three weeks after Ramadan. Measures taken include taking samples of the participants after their last meal, and this translated to 24 hours from the last training session. Tests taken from the participants included squat jump, multistage fitness test, total score of fatigue, and heart rate. Analysis of the data was done through ANOVA, and SPSS was used to achieve these calculations. The results of this study showed that the training load is consistent, and the mean body mass reduced by 1.8% at the end of the Ramadan period. The sprint performance remained the same for the sprint performance didn’t through the course of the study and no difference detected in the sessions. The results of this study showed that RIF had little effect on aerobic and anaerobic performances of the Judokas who highly participated in physical training. The body mass and fat went down and the perception of fatigue during this period of Ramadan increased. Article critique I appreciate the activities of the authors of this study, who tried to be specific compared with past researchers who focused on the topic generally. This research is specific and based on understanding the effect which RIF has on the performance of Judo athletes. The main objective was to understand the extent to which RIF affects the athletes and whether the influence can lead to the poor performance of these national heroes. The study is justified through the first hand informational obtained and the semi-longitudinal strategy used as an experimental approach. The problem statement, as explained from the introduction part of the article, is quite clear and looks to unravel the issue of whether Judo athletes are affected by the Ramadan fasting period, which lasts for 30 days. The design criteria for this study is quite effective in that it covers the period before the start of the Ramadan, during and after the Ramadan. The comparison of the data obtained concerning the main variables before, during and after Ramadan makes the conclusions of the results to be effective and reliable. The conclusion part of this study addresses the problem statement based on the perspective of various scholars who had performed research related to the problem statement. Making it clear that the RIF has little effect on the athlete’s performance makes the whole paper to be understood by laymen. Nearly every scientific study has its weaknesses and strengths, and this article is not an exception. However, the strengths of this paper are many compared to its few loopholes. The subject selected for the study are purely men and no women. This makes the study to be genderbiased, and this could have affected some information which could only have been obtained from women involved in Judo sports. Besides, the participants who are selected for analyzing are the ones who have gained enough experience in the field, and thus, the RFI could have little impact on their training practices. A different angle for this study could have been seen if we had a few participants who were beginners of the game. Even though the target of this study was to understand the impact on Judo athletes who are male professions, further research could have been derived well if we had beginners in the selected sample. The span of the period for this study is another weakness, which should have compromised the credibility of the results. The study stretched from October to December in 2005, and according to my understanding, this is a short time to base our arguments concerning a serious matter like this topic. The study results should have covered three years and study the behavior of Judo male athletes each year. The results obtained should have been compared for the three years, and thus a conclusion made based on them. This study has strengths that make it viable and be supported by various scholars. Much of the content for this article is extrapolated from previous research but unique in that it focuses on the Judo athletes who are males and have experience in the field for long. One strength of this study and which holds its results to be valid is the use of comprehensive methods of data acquisition. Diversified information related to Ramadan is captured through the highlighted methodology. Various measures have been put in place and which are related to study like physical performance measures and physiological measures. Besides, to understand the effect of RIF on aerobic and anaerobic more than one test is conducted through the study. Tests like squat jump and countermovement which measure anaerobic power of the athletes and aerobic tests like multistage fitness test are part of this study. The use of questionnaires, which is part of qualitative research strengthens the content of the article. The questions on the questionnaires focused on perceptions which the participants had on leg pain, irritability, sleep, and general stress. The authors for this article have done their work competently and brought the main issue out. The main question addressed was whether the RIF affects the performance of the Judo male athletes. From the results of the study, it is clear that RIF doesn’t have adverse effects on the performance of the athletes. The study has made it clear that we have increased the perception of fatigue during this period and reduced body mass and fat. The key finding for the study shows that we don’t have significant changes in performance during this period. The ANOVA analysis of the data collected makes our data results to be valid and reliable by many people. The procedure for this study is well structured and can be replicated by other scientists to check whether they will get the same results. Article summary The main objective of the study was to understand the impacts of Ramadan intermittent fasting on performance activities of the judo athletes. This was analyzed through the evaluation of the aerobic and anaerobic exercises for the athletes as part of their normal training load. This study is based on various studies that had shown that RIF affects the availability of substrate and its utilization and thus the possibility of leading to diurnal dehydration. In general, these changes can cause psychological perturbations, which may have detrimental effects on sports. The study is specific in that; it addresses the effects which RIF has on the competent trained athletes who carry on scheduled training. Judo is a sport selected for the participants of this study and requires energy through anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Power obtained through aerobic and anaerobic is a very relevant factor of consideration in this sport and influenced by diet and substrate. The perceptions of coaches and athletes are put into consideration as they believe that athletes who are under fasting have challenges of not maintaining their training load and physical work activities. The entire research is a report of the perception and performance of the Judo athletes during the RIF. The subjects used in this study are male judo athletes who volunteered as members of the Tunisia junior national judo team. The span for the study was between October and December 2005. Participants selected had at least eight years of experience in the field, and at least 10 of them had been involved in international events for the sport. The selected members were the best at this time and represented various weight classes with 6 of them falling under 60kg. The procedures for the study were conducted on four occasions. The first occasion was done five days before the start of Ramadhan, the second and the third were in the middle of Ramadhan, and the last occasion was done three weeks after Ramadan. Measures taken include taking samples of the participants after their last meal, and this translated to 24 hours from the last training session. Tests taken from the participants included squat jump, multistage fitness test, total score of fatigue, and heart rate. Analysis of the data was done through ANOVA, and SPSS was used to achieve these calculations. The results of this study showed that the training load is consistent, and the mean body mass reduced by 1.8% at the end of the Ramadan period. The sprint performance remained the same for the sprint performance didn’t through the course of the study and no difference detected in the sessions. The results of this study showed that RIF had little effect on aerobic and anaerobic performances of the Judokas who highly participated in physical training. The body mass and fat went down and the perception of fatigue during this period of Ramadan increased. Article critique I appreciate the activities of the authors of this study, who tried to be specific compared with past researchers who focused on the topic generally. This research is specific and based on understanding the effect which RIF has on the performance of Judo athletes. The main objective was to understand the extent to which RIF affects the athletes and whether the influence can lead to the poor performance of these national heroes. The study is justified through the first hand informational obtained and the semi-longitudinal strategy used as an experimental approach. The problem statement, as explained from the introduction part of the article, is quite clear and looks to unravel the issue of whether Judo athletes are affected by the Ramadan fasting period, which lasts for 30 days. The design criteria for this study is quite effective in that it covers the period before the start of the Ramadan, during and after the Ramadan. The comparison of the data obtained concerning the main variables before, during and after Ramadan makes the conclusions of the results to be effective and reliable. The conclusion part of this study addresses the problem statement based on the perspective of various scholars who had performed research related to the problem statement. Making it clear that the RIF has little effect on the athlete’s performance makes the whole paper to be understood by laymen. Nearly every scientific study has its weaknesses and strengths, and this article is not an exception. However, the strengths of this paper are many compared to its few loopholes. The subject selected for the study are purely men and no women. This makes the study to be genderbiased, and this could have affected some information which could only have been obtained from women involved in Judo sports. Besides, the participants who are selected for analyzing are the ones who have gained enough experience in the field, and thus, the RFI could have little impact on their training practices. A different angle for this study could have been seen if we had a few participants who were beginners of the game. Even though the target of this study was to understand the impact on Judo athletes who are male professions, further research could have been derived well if we had beginners in the selected sample. The span of the period for this study is another weakness, which should have compromised the credibility of the results. The study stretched from October to December in 2005, and according to my understanding, this is a short time to base our arguments concerning a serious matter like this topic. The study results should have covered three years and study the behavior of Judo male athletes each year. The results obtained should have been compared for the three years, and thus a conclusion made based on them. This study has strengths that make it viable and be supported by various scholars. Much of the content for this article is extrapolated from previous research but unique in that it focuses on the Judo athletes who are males and have experience in the field for long. One strength of this study and which holds its results to be valid is the use of comprehensive methods of data acquisition. Diversified information related to Ramadan is captured through the highlighted methodology. Various measures have been put in place and which are related to study like physical performance measures and physiological measures. Besides, to understand the effect of RIF on aerobic and anaerobic more than one test is conducted through the study. Tests like squat jump and countermovement which measure anaerobic power of the athletes and aerobic tests like multistage fitness test are part of this study. The use of questionnaires, which is part of qualitative research strengthens the content of the article. The questions on the questionnaires focused on perceptions which the participants had on leg pain, irritability, sleep, and general stress. The authors for this article have done their work competently and brought the main issue out. The main question addressed was whether the RIF affects the performance of the Judo male athletes. From the results of the study, it is clear that RIF doesn’t have adverse effects on the performance of the athletes. The study has made it clear that we have increased the perception of fatigue during this period and reduced body mass and fat. The key finding for the study shows that we don’t have significant changes in performance during this period. The ANOVA analysis of the data collected makes our data results to be valid and reliable by many people. The procedure for this study is well structured and can be replicated by other scientists to check whether they will get the same results. References Bhutani S.K.M.C., Kroeger C.M., Trepanowski, J.F. and Varady, K.A. (2012). Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012, 21 (7): 1370-1379. Elfhag K. and Rossner S (2005).Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. Obesity Rev Off J Int Assoc Study Obesity. 2005, 6 (1): 85-doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2005.00170. Attarzadeh Hosseini SR, Hejazi K., (2016). A Review of the Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Regular Physical Activity on Metabolic Syndrome Indices. J Fasting Health. 4(1): 1-16. De Bock, K., Derave, W., Eijnde, B., Hesselink, M., Koninckx, E., & Rose, A. et al. (2008). Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake. Journal of Applied Physiology, 104(4), 1045-1055. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01195.2007 Güvenç, A. (2011). Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition, Aerobic Performance and Lactate, Heart Rate and Perceptual Responses in Young Soccer Players. Journal Of Human Kinetics, 29(1), 79-91. doi: 10.2478/v10078-011-0042-9 Shadman Z, Akhoundan M, Khoshniat Nikoo M., (2014). A Review of Ramadan Fasting and Diabetes Mellitus: Controversies regarding the Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Diabetic Patients. J Fasting Health; 2(3):119-130. Trabelsi, K., Abed, K., Stannard, S., Jammoussi, K., Zeghal, K., & Hakim, A. (2012). Effects of Fed- Versus Fasted-State Aerobic Training During Ramadan on Body Composition and Some Metabolic Parameters in Physically Active Men. International Journal Of Sport Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 22(1), 11-18. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.22.1.11

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