Metr 112: Activity 8 1. Define fuel efficiency, and list the five factors that affect it. (2 points) 2. Petroleum (crude oil) is the dominant energy source for the transportation sector, responsible for 90% of its energy use. If fuel consumption continues at its current rate, in what year will known reserves of petroleum run out? Hint: See Chapter 7 – Page 5 of the Bloom textbook. (2 points) 3. In what year(s) did the USA peak (reach a maximum) in oil production? What happened to the amount of oil imported by our country from 1980 to 2010? (2 points) 4. Name five alternative energy sources for transportation. List one benefit and one challenge of each. (2 points) 5. Which alternative energy source for transportation appeals most to you, and why? Use 3-5 sentences for your response. (2 points) Mitigation Strategies: Transportation Outline Energy Consumption Transportation and Emissions Fuel Efficiency Peak Oil Alternative Fuels for Transportation Reading: Chapter 7, pages 1-65 2 Class Meeting Watch the videos for this lecture at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Sjvo7hmHds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5A7uKkxyfxE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNbObC-aMBI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPsIKtz6f8E Fossil Fuels Extraction and combustion of fossil fuels account for 65% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions The remaining 35% come from changes in land use and agricultural sources Provide 84% of world’s total energy production – Most energy for transportation Energy Consumption Increase Over the past 30 years, global energy usage has increased by approximately 2% per year – Mainly due to population growth and economic development Not much change in energy usage per capita (person) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Left) and Energy Consumption (Right) Energy Consumption per Capita Energy Consumption per GDP Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Left) and Energy Consumption (Right) Transportation Globalization of world’s economy requires that humans and products move long distances Passenger and freight travel will increase greatly during the next 30 years – Due to both population increase and longer travel distances Travel Increase Petroleum Currently the overwhelming energy source for travel (90%) Top 3 producing countries are Saudi Arabia, USA, and Russia Petroleum Production by Region Transportation 14% of global emissions come from transportation sector (28% in USA, 7% in China) Light-duty vehicles, freight trucks, and airplanes contribute the largest shares Lower total emissions from boats, trains, buses, and motorcycles Transportation Emissions: 2000-2050 Energy Usage: Transportation Sector (USA) Fuel Efficiency Fuel efficiency = distance traveled divided by volume of gasoline required for that distance Commonly measured in units of kilometers per liter (most of world) or miles per gallon (USA) Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles Varies by region of globe Factors affecting fuel efficiency – Driving conditions (speed, highway vs. city) – Taxes on petroleum and vehicles – Consumer preferences – Use of diesel powered vehicles – Automobile manufacturer agreements Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles In the early 2000’s, fuel efficiency in France, Germany, and the UK was 29-32 mpg It was 20-22 mpg in the USA, Australia, and Japan Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles By 2018, fuel efficiency of new vehicles in the USA had increased to 25.1 mpg. Fuel Efficiency: Relation to Speed Due to increased wind resistance at higher speeds, fuel efficiency decreases at speeds above 50 mph – Vehicles traveling at 75 mph are 20% less efficient than those at 55 mph Fuel Efficiency: Relation to Speed In 1974, National Maximum Speed Limit Law was enacted by Congress – In response to 1973 Oil Crisis that resulted in increased prices and supply disruptions – Set maximum speed limits at 55 mph nationwide – Designed to reduce oil consumption Stretch of State Highway 130 in Texas Fuel Efficiency: Highway/City Quick acceleration and heavy braking decrease fuel efficiency by over 30% – Automobile companies advertise two efficiencies for each car City Highway Due to number of cars increasing faster than road capacity, congestion is rising Fuel Efficiency: Taxes 2006 average cost of extracting, transporting, and refining a gallon of gasoline was $2.01 2013 average price of gasoline at the pump was between $0.09 and $9.50 per gallon, varying by country – Depends on subsidies and taxes – Major oil exporting countries tend to subsidize fuel – Most others tax fuel November 14, 2020 USA Gas Price: $2.12 per gallon – California: $3.22 per gallon Transportation Efficiency – Taxes on Fuel In many countries, taxes on fuel represent a major source of government revenue Percentage of revenues deriving from taxes on fuels Transportation Efficiency – Taxes on Fuel In the USA, gasoline prices vary greatly by state due to tax differences Current USA gas prices as of April 25th, 2021 Transportation Efficiency – Consumer Preferences Some consumers prefer smaller and cleaner vehicles Others prefer larger vehicles with faster acceleration Through technological innovation, efficiency has still increased slightly USA Transportation Efficiency – Diesel Powered Vehicles Diesel is denser than gasoline, and contains 11% more energy per volume Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines in converting fuel energy into mechanical work Diesel engines obtain about 40% higher fuel efficiency per volume than gasoline engines of same power Transportation Efficiency – Regulating Automobile Manufacturers 1975 – US enacted Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations – Fuel efficiency of cars and small trucks in a manufacturer’s US fleet must meet minimum average value 1978: 18/17.2 mpg 1985: 27.5/21.6 mpg – Controversial Public Transportation and Efficiency Cycling, walking, and running have the lowest carbon footprint 

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Metr 112: Activity 8 1. Define fuel efficiency, and list the five factors that affect it. (2 points) 2. Petroleum (crude oil) is the dominant energy source for the transportation sector, responsible for 90% of its energy use. If fuel consumption continues at its current rate, in what year will known reserves of petroleum run out? Hint: See Chapter 7 – Page 5 of the Bloom textbook. (2 points) 3. In what year(s) did the USA peak (reach a maximum) in oil production? What happened to the amount of oil imported by our country from 1980 to 2010? (2 points) 4. Name five alternative energy sources for transportation. List one benefit and one challenge of each. (2 points) 5. Which alternative energy source for transportation appeals most to you, and why? Use 3-5 sentences for your response. (2 points) Mitigation Strategies: Transportation Outline Energy Consumption Transportation and Emissions Fuel Efficiency Peak Oil Alternative Fuels for Transportation Reading: Chapter 7, pages 1-65 2 Class Meeting Watch the videos for this lecture at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Sjvo7hmHds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5A7uKkxyfxE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNbObC-aMBI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPsIKtz6f8E Fossil Fuels Extraction and combustion of fossil fuels account for 65% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions The remaining 35% come from changes in land use and agricultural sources Provide 84% of world’s total energy production – Most energy for transportation Energy Consumption Increase Over the past 30 years, global energy usage has increased by approximately 2% per year – Mainly due to population growth and economic development Not much change in energy usage per capita (person) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Left) and Energy Consumption (Right) Energy Consumption per Capita Energy Consumption per GDP Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Left) and Energy Consumption (Right) Transportation Globalization of world’s economy requires that humans and products move long distances Passenger and freight travel will increase greatly during the next 30 years – Due to both population increase and longer travel distances Travel Increase Petroleum Currently the overwhelming energy source for travel (90%) Top 3 producing countries are Saudi Arabia, USA, and Russia Petroleum Production by Region Transportation 14% of global emissions come from transportation sector (28% in USA, 7% in China) Light-duty vehicles, freight trucks, and airplanes contribute the largest shares Lower total emissions from boats, trains, buses, and motorcycles Transportation Emissions: 2000-2050 Energy Usage: Transportation Sector (USA) Fuel Efficiency Fuel efficiency = distance traveled divided by volume of gasoline required for that distance Commonly measured in units of kilometers per liter (most of world) or miles per gallon (USA) Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles Varies by region of globe Factors affecting fuel efficiency – Driving conditions (speed, highway vs. city) – Taxes on petroleum and vehicles – Consumer preferences – Use of diesel powered vehicles – Automobile manufacturer agreements Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles In the early 2000’s, fuel efficiency in France, Germany, and the UK was 29-32 mpg It was 20-22 mpg in the USA, Australia, and Japan Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicles By 2018, fuel efficiency of new vehicles in the USA had increased to 25.1 mpg. Fuel Efficiency: Relation to Speed Due to increased wind resistance at higher speeds, fuel efficiency decreases at speeds above 50 mph – Vehicles traveling at 75 mph are 20% less efficient than those at 55 mph Fuel Efficiency: Relation to Speed In 1974, National Maximum Speed Limit Law was enacted by Congress – In response to 1973 Oil Crisis that resulted in increased prices and supply disruptions – Set maximum speed limits at 55 mph nationwide – Designed to reduce oil consumption Stretch of State Highway 130 in Texas Fuel Efficiency: Highway/City Quick acceleration and heavy braking decrease fuel efficiency by over 30% – Automobile companies advertise two efficiencies for each car City Highway Due to number of cars increasing faster than road capacity, congestion is rising Fuel Efficiency: Taxes 2006 average cost of extracting, transporting, and refining a gallon of gasoline was $2.01 2013 average price of gasoline at the pump was between $0.09 and $9.50 per gallon, varying by country – Depends on subsidies and taxes – Major oil exporting countries tend to subsidize fuel – Most others tax fuel November 14, 2020 USA Gas Price: $2.12 per gallon – California: $3.22 per gallon Transportation Efficiency – Taxes on Fuel In many countries, taxes on fuel represent a major source of government revenue Percentage of revenues deriving from taxes on fuels Transportation Efficiency – Taxes on Fuel In the USA, gasoline prices vary greatly by state due to tax differences Current USA gas prices as of April 25th, 2021 Transportation Efficiency – Consumer Preferences Some consumers prefer smaller and cleaner vehicles Others prefer larger vehicles with faster acceleration Through technological innovation, efficiency has still increased slightly USA Transportation Efficiency – Diesel Powered Vehicles Diesel is denser than gasoline, and contains 11% more energy per volume Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines in converting fuel energy into mechanical work Diesel engines obtain about 40% higher fuel efficiency per volume than gasoline engines of same power Transportation Efficiency – Regulating Automobile Manufacturers 1975 – US enacted Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations – Fuel efficiency of cars and small trucks in a manufacturer’s US fleet must meet minimum average value 1978: 18/17.2 mpg 1985: 27.5/21.6 mpg – Controversial Public Transportation and Efficiency Cycling, walking, and running have the lowest carbon footprint 

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