Hello Anna87, kindly find the attached document. In case of any corrections feel free to reach out. It is always a pleasure to work with you. Thank you and be blessed.Running head: COLON CANCER1Colon CancerStudent’s NameInstitutional AffiliationCOLON CANCER2AbstractColon (Colorectal) cancer grows in human colon and rectum. This cancer had lowdiagnosis a few decades ago. Recently, however, in cancer-related mortality rates, it causes anapproximation of 10% deaths in western countries. The aging population in western countries isassociated with the rising colorectal cancer cases. Modern habits like smoking, obesity, lack ofexercise, and poor diets also have been connected to the rising colorectal cancer cases. Advancedtechnology like cancer screening has reduced the deaths related to cancers; unfortunately,colorectal cancer among young people has been on the rise for unknown reasons. Newtreatments like rectal cancer radiotherapy, primary laparoscopic disease surgery, palliativechemotherapy, aggressive metastatic disease resection, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy havegiven metastatic and primary colorectal cancer patients additional treatment options. However,the lengthy survival of patients and cure rates have had little impact from these numeroustreatment options. Genetic and environmental factors both hugely contribute to colon cancerpathogenesis. To counter this, it is suggested that healthy nutrition can casually protect peoplefrom colorectal cancer development. This primer aims to provide an overview of colon cancermechanisms, factors in development, diagnosis, screening, pathophysiology, and treatment.Keywords: Nutrition, Colorectal Cancer, Adjunctive therapyCOLON CANCER3Colon CancerIntroductionColorectal cancer affects both male and females. Only women breast cancer, menprostate cancer, and lung cancer are diagnosed more than colorectal cancer. In this modern era,the improved healthcare systems, living conditions, transport system have impacted the diagnosisand treatment of diseases significantly. Reduction in deaths from infectious diseases can beattributed to these improvements. Unfortunately, cancer-related deaths have increased by around40% in the last half-century. These numbers are expected to go up in the coming decade and ahalf by an estimate 60% with almost thirteen million cancer mortality rates in 2030 (Kuipers,Rösch, & Bretthauer, 2013). Colorectal cancers affecting the proximal colon average around41%, 22% for the distal colon, and the rectum 28%. However, gender and age have been foundto impact the colorectal cancer site of origin (Cheng, Eng, Nieman, Kapadia, & Du, 2011).Changes in the causes of cancer-related deaths, disease incidents alterations, therapeuticimprovements, and screening programs have been seen. Western countries now have anapproximate 10% mortality rate associated with cancer while in the 1950s, this was rare. Thepreponderance of obesity, smoking, poor diets and low physical activity is increasing the cancercases in this new world. Increase in sporadic disease rates and syndromes like familial cancer isapparent. Infections like gastric cancer have dramatically fallen. Carriers of Lynch syndromewere predominantly infected with gastric cancer (Warthin, 1913). Colon cancer is currently themain presentation of lynch syndrome.The screening will play a substantial part in the number of future incidences and deaths inthe next decade, not associated with lifestyle interventions or new treatments. It is worth notingCOLON CANCER4colonoscopy screening has improved substantially in regards to training, technical changes, andquality assurance (Valori et al., 2012). Screening improvements like faecal DNA tests and faecalimmunochemical options are proposed alternatives to the invasive gold standard colonoscopymethodology for high uptake screening.EpidemiologyEvery country colorectal cancer incidence is different with various factors contributing tothese incidences. The social, economic status being low is considerably connected to coloncancer. In 1976 in the USA, 60.5 per 100,000 persons had colon cancer, in 2005 it reduced to46.4 per 100,000 (Cheng, Eng, Nieman, Kapadia, & Du, 2011). This decline is noted again from2003 to 2012 as an estimate 3% per year; in 2017 out of 135,430 cancer mortality, 50,260 werefrom colon cancer (Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2018). the overall incidence reduction of colorectalcancer is noted, though an increase of 2% in incidences is noticed in women and men of 50 yearsand less. A projection of 2030 shows rectal and colon cancers incident increase for 20-34-yearold’s with estimations of 124.2% and 90% respectively (Bailey et al., 2015). The incidentincrease reason is unknown with 35% of these young colorectal cancer incidences related tohereditary colorectal cancer syndrome.Between 1990 and 2007, colorectal cancer mortality incidences have reduced by anestimate of 35%. This reduction is associated with early intervention, better treatment, andimproved screening measures which currently is at 50% from the peak mortality rates (Siegel etal., 2017). However, this overall decrease in colorectal cancer deaths is also noticed to havemasked the death of young adults suffering from the same. The mortality of young patients(white) aged 20-54 reduced from 6.3 to 4.3 per 100,000 in 2004 and 2014, respectively.COLON CANCER5Colorectal cancer is more common in females than in men. It ranks second common cancer infemales, and it is men’s third common cancer. Statistically, colorectal cancer diagnosis had614,000 incidences amounting to 9.2% being women in all new cancer cases in 2012, and menhad 746,000 incidences which were 10% of the new cancer cases worldwide. Colorectal canceraccounts for 9.7% of both sexes’ cancer cases combined without non-melanoma skin cancers.Most colorectal cancer incidences are found in the developed world regions (Northern America,America, Europe, Japan, New Zealand) more than half the occurrences. These incidences occurat a higher standa…


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