“Modern personality psychologists are scientific in the sense that they attempt to use methods of scientific inference (using systematically gathered evidence) to test the theories.” (Friedman & Schustack, 2014, p.15).
a) With reference to the statement above, should you use astrologers or fortune-tellers in assessing your personality? Take a stand and support your explanation with THREE (3) arguments in relation to your understanding of the properties of good personality tests.
Illustrate with ONE (1) example from your experience to defend your stand.
b) Many important personality assessments do not rely on the use of self-reports. Identify and describe TWO (2) examples of other types of personality measures that are not selfreports: one type used by the behaviourist assessor, and another type by the psychoanalytic assessor.
c) Identify TWO (2) basic questions asked in personality psychology.
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“It turns out that not only do we better understand health by studying personality but we also come to a better understanding of personality by studying health” (Friedman & Schustack,2014, p.401). The recent Covid-19 pandemic has affected the lives of many people. It seems to show links between personality and health behaviours, between personality and social behaviour in terms of compliance or non-compliance of social distancing, wearing masks and stay at home regulations.
a) Hypothesise the type of personalities which take greater risks with their health and social behaviour during the pandemic and explain why. Explain clearly the factors that may affect one’s personality and behaviour. Support your arguments with reference to ONE (1) relevant personality theory.
b) Compare and contrast the behaviourist approach with the humanistic approach on the following THREE (3) aspects of personality in detail:
ii) roots of maladaptive behaviour and
iii) personality change.
c) Analyse and evaluate the usefulness of each of the above TWO (2) major personality theories in 2b) for the helping profession.
Many people in Singapore experienced anxiety and worry amid the Covid-19 uncertainty. Many faced different types of stress such as isolation, job prospects, retrenchment, family woes and health concerns. The local newspaper reported that 6,600 calls were made to National Care Hotline: 14 per cent were calling due to anxiety, 11 per cent called about financial issues, 10 per cent sought emotional support, 6 per cent faced family conflicts, divorce and parenting issues, while 4 per cent experienced aggression by family members. (The Straits Times, 5 April and 30 April 2020).
a) Identify and analyse the problems faced by individuals during the pandemic and show how Maslow’s theory fits in the context of Covid-19.
b) An extroverted, bubbly 22-year-old medical student from a British university experienced an overwhelming sense of uneasiness when she was serving her 14-day stay-at-home notice upon her return from overseas. She was disappointed about her lost opportunities to begin her clinical internship stints in a well-known overseas medical center as well as in a local hospital. Bad news flooded her social media as more countries went into lockdown due to the increase of infected cases. She became frightened and felt that Covid-19 was in her bedroom. Explain what she could be experiencing and why you think she felt that way. Describe TWO (2) cultural factors from either the direct or indirect cultural effects that may explain her behavior and personality functioning.
Many personality measures are not very objective in yielding a test score. Some personality tests entail objective assessments while other subjective tests may require the tester to interpret how an individual is reacting. Various measures have been devised to assess behaviour.
a) Identify and elaborate on TWO (2) differences between objective and subjective approaches to personality assessment.
Provide ONE (1) example of:
i) Objective personality assessment and illustrate when it may be useful.
ii) Subjective approach to personality assessment and illustrate when it may be useful.
b) Describe briefly the TWO (2) most important characteristics that all good psychological tests must have. Justifying them in order of importance, explain why these TWO (2) qualities are essential for meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the test results.
c) According to which personality theorist, is simply asking someone to tell you about his or her psychological problems, a poor method of assessment? Identify the personality theorist and explain briefly why it is so.
Just as people come in different sizes, shapes, and colors, so people differ somewhat in their personality systems. An individual’s characteristic, emotional, cognitive, social, behavioral, and motivational nature is strongly influenced by multiple factors. Today, new developments in brain study, artificial intelligence, evolutionary theory and environmental study, which focus on human inconsistencies, freedom, self-fulfilment and understanding human genetics, are being applied to personality psychology.
a) The relatively unchangeable biological characteristics such as genetics, inheritance, the neuroendocrine system, bodily endowment and physical health does affect one’s personality at times. According to the biological theory, a number of environmental factors seem to affect and influence personality. Describe THREE (3) of these environmental factors. Explain clearly how each of these THREE (3) factors may affect one’s personality.
b) Excluding the biological theory, select any TWO (2) other major personality theories to compare and contrast critically on any THREE (3) different aspects of personality in detail.
c) Analyse and explain the usefulness of each of the above TWO (2) selected major personality theories in Question 2b for the helping profession.
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Modern-day researchers are concerned with the potential problems of youths – substance abuse, smoking, internet addiction, promiscuity and violence are some of the examples. Like Gordon Allport, Margaret Mead, an anthropologist, felt that an individual’s inclination to respond in certain ways (i.e. their personality) was relatively stable even though the actual behaviors had changed as a function of culture (as cited in Friedman & Schustack, 2014,
Culture, religion, language, race, gender and socio-economic status have a varied impact on behaviour and personality development. Language is one of the most central and influential features of any culture. In testing, it is very important to develop a fair and culturally unbiased test in which all students, irrespective of ethnic and language background, can generally perform equally well on a test that uses English language as medium of communication. To some extent, you are what you speak.
a) Explain with THREE (3) sound arguments how language can affect the social identity, social interaction and personality of individuals in Singapore, a multi-cultural pluralistic society. Support your answer with a relevant example from your school or community or work experience to demonstrate this powerful relationship.
b) A client with only primary school education, of a different race and socio-economic standing from you, walks into the counseling center to see you, the counselor. Your client’s presenting problems are low self-esteem and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Write a short counseling dialogue of at least FIVE (5) sets of questions or statements and responses between the counselee and you, who is a strong believer in the humanistic personality perspective. Illustrate what the client might say to you and how you would respond sensitively to aid in the personality change of the client, taking into consideration the cultural aspects of personality
c) In your opinion, explain which personality theory best accounts for
cultural influences on personality and why.
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