1 Assisted Suicide /Death with Dignity Act Norma Ibarra Columbia Southern University English 1020 2 Assisted Suicide /Death with Dignity Act Annotated Bibliography Derse, A. R., Moskop, J. C., McGrath, N. A., Vearrier, L. E., Clayborne, E. P., Goett, R. R., & Limehouse Jr, W. E. (2019). Physician‐assisted Death: Ethical Implications for Emergency Physicians. Academic Emergency Medicine, 26(2), 250255. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13618 This is another peer-reviewed article that presents the ethical implications of using physician-assisted death by emergency physicians. The authors elude that the issue of physicianassisted deaths has been debated in the U.S, thus explaining why some states have legalized it while others have not. I like this article because it extensively evaluates the moral and ethical implications of using physician-assisted death. For example, the article argues that patients should be given the right to choose whether physician-assisted suicide should be used or not when approaching the end of life. Therefore, I will use this idea in my research paper because respect for autonomy is essential, especially when terminally ill patients prefer to die in an effective, painless, and dignified manner rather than facing pain and suffering. I also like this article for articulating arguments to oppose physician-assisted suicide because it can be abused and compromise physician integrity. Dugdale, L. S., Lerner, B. H., & Callahan, D. (2019). Focus: Death: Pros and Cons of Physician Aid in Dying. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 92(4), 747. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6913818/ The information here is good for both sides. As the title says, it discusses the pros and cons of physician aid in dying. Therefore, the article eliminates the bias of using physicianassisted deaths for those who would like to support or oppose it. There are many arguments 3 about whether people should have the right to die when they choose, intentionally and by design, to end their own perceived pain and suffering. The terminologies about physician-assisted suicide have been presented in the article to help the audience understand euthanasia. For example, the audience should learn terminologies such as the right to die and death with dignity also means physician-assisted suicide or death. The authors also present the history of physicianassisted suicide in the U.S to ensure the audience under its origin. It does not take sides or specific positions because it indicates both the pros and cons of physician-assisted suicide. On the pros, it lists issues such as respect for patient autonomy and ending pain and suffering. On the cons, the article focuses on issues such as suicide contagion and depression in advanced illnesses. Goligher, E. C., Ely, E. W., Sulmasy, D. P., Bakker, J., Raphael, J., Volandes, A. E., Patel, B. M., Payne, K., Hosie, A., Churchill, L., White, D. B., & Downar, J. (2017). Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the ICU. Critical Care Medicine, 45(2), 149-155. https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000001818 In this resource, the primary focus is the ethical consideration in applying euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide for patients in the intensive care unit. This is straight from this review. We sometimes witness severe and protracted physical and psychological suffering in the ICU. Death may seem a relief, as the patient no longer has physical sensations. On this basis, some have argued that death can sometimes be beneficial. I enjoyed reading this. I find this a very good example of how to show both sides of the topic. I will use all parts of this throughout my paper. All-around information includes facts, pros, and cons. Debate on physician-assisted suicide is controversial because many feel it undermines the ethical principles in healthcare 4 settings. This article will be helpful in my research because it summarizes the key ethical questions on physician-assisted suicide. Isaac, M., & Chaar, B. (2017, October 20). Euthanasia drugs: What is needed from medications for assisted deaths?ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-20/assisted-dying-what-is-needfrom-drugs-for-voluntary-euthanasia/9069896 This article presents the motive for using euthanasia in physician-assisted death. According to Isaac & Chaar (2017), the motivation for euthanasia is to end the pain and suffering experienced by terminally ill patients. The article also acknowledges the debate in Victoria on the commonly used drugs for physician-assisted suicide upon legalizing euthanasia in areas where it is still illegal. The arguments made by the authors are essential because medicine is poison if an overdose occurs. The article states having legalized physician-assisted deaths should understand the drugs to use to ensure the patient die in a dignified manner. The information about which drug to use as euthanasia should be disclosed to a patient and family by a doctor who prescribes or assists with suicide. This resource is helpful in my research because it focuses on the impact of patient-assisted suicide on patients and their families. The article is essential in my research because I will compare the type of drugs as euthanasia in areas that have already legalized physician-assisted suicide. Marrow, A. (2021, January 02). Overview of Physician-Assisted Suicide Arguments. Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/opposition-tophysician-assisted-suicide-1132377 The debate over the morality and legality of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is not new. The article has presented some of the states that have legalized physician-assisted suicide. It has 5 been a topic of heated discussions for years and does not show any signs of going away. This resource details the differences in all the options one may have in ending life. The given information talks about the physician’s side. It also presents medical terms and focuses on the doctor’s side. Violation of the Hippocratic Oath. The Hippocratic Oath states that a physician’s obligation is primum non nocere, “first, do no harm.” PAS directly contradicts that oath, as deliberately killing a patient is considered harmful. It can be interpreted differently from person to person. It is an essential part of my paper to put forth medical facts to assist in the substantial portion of my research. I will use this as a mutual ground in my research paper. Ordway, D.M. (2017, October 19). Physician-assisted suicide: Resources for journalists. The Journalist’s Resource. https://journalistsresource.org/criminaljustice/physician-assisted-suicide-research-oregon-dc/ In this article it speaks on the seven states that already practice the death and dying act. Hawaii voted against it in 2017. During the same time, Massachusetts considered taking the Endof-Life option act into effect. Doctors are split on this topic as The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, however, has taken “a position of studied neutrality.” It’s important to point out that assisted suicide is different than euthanasia, although some people mistakenly use the terms interchangeably. In euthanasia, a doctor directly causes a patient’s death by administering a lethal substance. In assisted suicide, a doctor prescribes or dispenses a deadly drug that the patient may ingest or administer on their own. In my paper, I can use this fact gathering to explain the topic’s background since it is a neutral side fact portion. The information provided by this article mainly relies on government reports, thus helping to write a paper about physician-assisted suicide based on U.S laws and policies. 6 Pronk, R., Willems, D. L., & Van de Vathorst, S. (2020). Do doctors differentiate between suicide and physician-assisted death? A qualitative study into the views of psychiatrists and general practitioners. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 45(2), 268-281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11013-020-09686-2 This is a peer-reviewed article that also talks about physician-assisted deaths. It mainly focused on patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The authors have indicated that patientassisted death is only legalized in the Netherlands to address psychiatric disorders based on special circumstances. I like this article because it explains that physician-assisted death should be used when it is extremely necessary to ensure a request for physician-assisted death and suicidality are differentiated. Physicians must assess and critically evaluate the given circumstances under which the patient requests physician-assisted death. I will use this article in my research because it provides critical details to physicians when accepting death wishes from patients. It is very informative that the article eludes that physician-assisted suicide is only applicable if the death wish is justifiable. Some of the justifiable circumstances include irremediable and unbearable pain and suffering. Thus, I will use the information in this article in my research paper to emphasize that physician-assisted death should only be applied in special circumstances to avoid abuse.
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