Younger children can grasp that the international system can be viewed as an extension of their own systems and what makes a human being essentially human despite differences.4 Students need to understand the many actors such as governments, organizations, and individuals that have a responsibility to acknowledge the rights of people. Human rights scholar Rachel May believes that “the real danger in teaching human rights to any age group is that you do not want students to come away thinking human rights is about bad stuff that happens to other people in faraway places… [but] that human rights is about respecting and preserving human dignity, and that it is an everyday issue for all of us.”5 Using the “plain language” version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is useful for making the language easily understandable.6 Once students understand what comprises human rights and can apply the concept to both faraway lands and their own country, they need to begin building their comprehension of the scope and severity of the issues. Gathering facts, statistics, and human interest stories brings immediacy and concreteness to the complex topic at hand. It is particularly arresting for students to learn about human rights issues for children their own age. It is important to also include information about individuals, organizations, and country policies that are working to eradicate human rights Selected Children’s Literature Brothers in Hope: The Story of the Lost Boys of Sudan by Mary Williams. Illustrated by R. Gregory Christie. New York: Lee & Low Books, 2005. Thousands of boys in Sudan were displaced when their villages were destroyed by civil war. This story is one boy’s journey from his home in Sudan, walking across the savanna to Ethiopia, and eventually to a refugee camp in Kenya. The book delicately addresses the horrors and dangers faced by these boys who lost their homes and family. The Carpet Boy’s Gift by Pegi Deitz Shea; illustrated by Leane Morin. Gardiner, Maine: Tilbury House, 2003. Inspired by the life of Iqbal Masih, the Pakistani boy who fought for the rights of enslaved children, this story explores the plight of the children bonded as carpet weavers. Through a chance encounter with Iqbal, the main character, Nadeem, begins to dream of freedom and the chance to go to school. Child Slavery in Modern Times by Shirlee P. Newman. New York: Franklin Watts, 2000. Slavery did not end with the conclusion of the nineteenth century. This book examines the plight of the world’s enslaved children through the use of personal narratives and photographs. The author discusses the nature of contemporary slavery, the type of work children are forced to perform, and ways that children can help to end slavery in our time. Every Human Has Rights: A Photographic Declaration for Kids. Poetry from ePals Global Learning Community. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2009. This photographic essay links the 30 rights guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with poetry written by students in the ePals Global Learning Community. National Geographic photographs are used to depict each of the rights. The book provides a child-appropriate entrée for a discussion of human rights. Selected Young Adult Literature The Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis. Toronto: Groundwood Books, 2000. Set during the early days of the Taliban regime, this is the story of Parvana, an educated young girl who becomes the family breadwinner after her father is arrested. The novel describes the shift in Afghan society under the Taliban regime—one that excludes women and girls from work, school, and society. Free the Children: A Young Man Fights Against Child Labor and Proves that Children Can Change the World by Craig Kielburger and Kevin Major. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999. Reading accounts of Iqbal Masih’s efforts to free bonded children and his murder influenced young Craig Kielburger, with the aid of his friends, to create Free the Children, a human rights organization. This book chronicles the young activist’s journey to visit Asia’s working children and highlights what one dedicated young person can accomplish against seemingly insurmountable odds. debt-bonded children in Pakistan, 13-year-old Iqbal Masih was murdered. This fictionalized account of Iqbal’s life in the rug factories and his work to free the bonded children is told from the perspective of a co-worker. The short novel offers a voice to a courageous child no longer able to tell his story. Listen to Us: The World’s Working Children by Jane Springer. Toronto: Groundwood Books, 1997. Using statistics, photographs, and personal narratives to support informational text, this book describes reasons for child labor, type of work done by children, and how to help working children. Iqbal: A Novel by Francesco D’Adamo and translated by Ann Leonori. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2001. Shortly after winning international prizes for his efforts to free S o c i a l E d u c at i o n 264 abuses. Kelly Miliziano asks her students to consider: “Who are the people acting to defend human rights? What are the strategies that we can be involved with to make a difference? What can you do right now?”7 Because students have to internalize the information and will need to examine attitudes (their own as well as others), emphasis should be on active learning strategies that can develop these skills.8 Engaging strategies that can be used include case studies, role-plays, simulation games, problem-solving exercises, and discussion—both small and large group. For an excellent discussion about teaching for human rights, see Chapter 2 of the Human Rights Education Association’s Teaching for Human Rights: Grades 5-10, which is publicly accessible online.9 Last, teachers need to think carefully about assessing learning and growth of their students. The object should not be on evaluating whether students come to despErate times from page 262 either freed upon their release or held in detention for a specified amount of time before being released. 21 While the number of detainees currently housed at Guantánamo is significantly smaller than the 660 captives detained in November 2003, their likely fate is largely unclear. What is clear is that on four occasions lawyers for detainees have argued before the Supreme Court and on all four occasions the Court has ruled in their favor. It is also clear that both presidents Bush and Obama have wielded tremendous power when trying to balance the needs of securing the nation’s safety versus upholding the individual rights of those detained in the “War on Terror.” While there is no end in sight to the detainees’ captivity, we can hope that future decisions made by the U.S government will follow a course which reflects our nation’s values of human rights and the rule of law, including due process for those accused of crimes against the state. embrace a particular issue or cause, but rather whether they have understood the basic rights to which all human beings are entitled, whether they have wrestled with the issues, and whether they have come to personal understandings of what can be done to address the problems. Student journals and portfolio assessments that incorporate self-reflection are particularly well-suited for human rights education. Concluding Thoughts Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary explorations can serve not only as a source of information and knowledge, they can also provide inspiration to the next generation of human Notes 1. Joe Klein, “A Middle Ground on Enemy Combatants,” Time (May 21, 2009): 25. 2. Michael Ratner and Ellen Ray, Guantánamo: What the World Should Know (White River Junction, Vt.: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2003). 3. Ex Parte Merryman, 17 F Cas. 144 (1861) 4. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) 5. Ex Parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1 (1942) 6. “Military Order of November 13, 2001—Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War against Terrorism,” Federal Register 66, no. 222 (November 16, 2001). 7. “USA: Guantánamo Bay – New Report Shows 80% of Detainees in Solitary Confinement,” Amnesty International (April 2007), www.amnesty.org.uk/ news_details.asp?NewsID=17322. 8. Military Commission Act of 2006. Pub. L. No. 109366, 120 Stat. 2600 9. Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorist Act of 2001, Pub. L No. 107-40, 115 Stat. 224 and 225. 10. “USA: Guantánamo Bay – New Report Shows 80% of Detainees in Solitary Confinement.” 11. “Report on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment of Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba” Center for Constitutional Rights (July 2006), http://ccrjustice.org/learn-more/reports/ report:-torture-and-cruel,-inhuman,-and-degradingtreatment-prisoners-guantanamo-. 12. Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004) 13. Combatant Status Review Tribunals, http://humanrights.ucdavis.edu/projects/the-guantanamo-testimonials-project/testimonies/testimonies-of-the-defensedepartment/CSRT_new. O ctob e r 265 2 0 12 rights advocates. Notes 1. Kelly Miliziano, personal interview, April 28, 2009. 2. Ibid. 3. Kathy Bohan, personal interview, email correspondence, March 25, 2009. 4. Rachel May, personal interview, email correspondence, March 17, 2009. 5. Ibid. 6. United Nations CyberSchoolBus, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, www.un.org/cyber schoolbus/humanrights/resources/plain.asp. 7. Kelly Miliziano, personal interview, ibid. 8. Amnesty International, www.amnesty.org.au/human rightstoday/feature/teaching_for_human_rights_ online_teacher_guide/. 9. Human Rights Education Association, Teaching for Human Rights: Grades 5-10, www.hrea.org/erc/ Library/secondary/Teaching-HR-5-10/toc.html. Caroline C. Sheffield is an assistant professor of social studies education at the University of Louisville. Her research interests include literacy and technology in the social studies. She can be contacted at [email protected] Bárbara C. Cruz is professor of social science education at the University of South Florida. Her research and teaching interests include global and multicultural issues in education. She can be contacted at [email protected] 14. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2006) 15. Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008); “High court blocks Gitmo military tribunals,” www.cnn. com/2006/LAW/06/29/scotus.tribunals/index.html. 16. “BACKGROUND: President Obama signs Executive Orders on Detention and Interrogation Policy,” www. whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/background-president-obama-signs-executive-orders-detention-andinterrogation-polic 17. Jeffrey M. Jones, “Americans Oppose Closing Gitmo and Moving Prisoners to U.S.,” Gallup Politics, www. gallup.com/poll/119393/Americans-Oppose-ClosingGitmo-Moving-Prisoners.aspx. 18. “Guantanamo sparks Obama’s first fight with Congress,” TopNews, http://topnews.us/content/25303-guantanamo-sparks-obamas-first-fight-congress. 19. “Obama signs defense bill ‘with reservations’” CNN (December 31, 2011) http://articles.cnn.com/2011-1231/politics/politics_obama-defense-bill_1_civiliancustody-legislators-military-custody?_s=PM:POLITICS. 20. “By the Numbers,” The Miami Herald (Updated Sept 10, 2012), www.miamiherald.com/2007/11/27/322461/ by-the-numbers.html. 21. Ibid. Jason L. O’Brien is assistant professor of education at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama. His research interests lie in citizenship education and English Language Learners. He can be reached at [email protected] Kyle T. Barbieri teaches political science at Georgia Perimeter College, Georgia. His research interests are in American politics, public law and courts, and social science methods. He can be emailed at kyle. [email protected]
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 Younger children can grasp that the international system can be viewed as an extension of their own systems and what makes a human being essentially human despite differences.4 Students need to understand the many actors such as governments, organizations, and individuals that have a responsibility to acknowledge the rights of people. Human rights scholar Rachel May believes that “the real danger in teaching human rights to any age group is that you do not want students to come away thinking human rights is about bad stuff that happens to other people in faraway places… [but] that human rights is about respecting and preserving human dignity, and that it is an everyday issue for all of us.”5 Using the “plain language” version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is useful for making the language easily understandable.6 Once students understand what comprises human rights and can apply the concept to both faraway lands and their own country, they need to begin building their comprehension of the scope and severity of the issues. Gathering facts, statistics, and human interest stories brings immediacy and concreteness to the complex topic at hand. It is particularly arresting for students to learn about human rights issues for children their own age. It is important to also include information about individuals, organizations, and country policies that are working to eradicate human rights Selected Children’s Literature Brothers in Hope: The Story of the Lost Boys of Sudan by Mary Williams. Illustrated by R. Gregory Christie. New York: Lee & Low Books, 2005. Thousands of boys in Sudan were displaced when their villages were destroyed by civil war. This story is one boy’s journey from his home in Sudan, walking across the savanna to Ethiopia, and eventually to a refugee camp in Kenya. The book delicately addresses the horrors and dangers faced by these boys who lost their homes and family. The Carpet Boy’s Gift by Pegi Deitz Shea; illustrated by Leane Morin. Gardiner, Maine: Tilbury House, 2003. Inspired by the life of Iqbal Masih, the Pakistani boy who fought for the rights of enslaved children, this story explores the plight of the children bonded as carpet weavers. Through a chance encounter with Iqbal, the main character, Nadeem, begins to dream of freedom and the chance to go to school. Child Slavery in Modern Times by Shirlee P. Newman. New York: Franklin Watts, 2000. Slavery did not end with the conclusion of the nineteenth century. This book examines the plight of the world’s enslaved children through the use of personal narratives and photographs. The author discusses the nature of contemporary slavery, the type of work children are forced to perform, and ways that children can help to end slavery in our time. Every Human Has Rights: A Photographic Declaration for Kids. Poetry from ePals Global Learning Community. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2009. This photographic essay links the 30 rights guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with poetry written by students in the ePals Global Learning Community. National Geographic photographs are used to depict each of the rights. The book provides a child-appropriate entrée for a discussion of human rights. Selected Young Adult Literature The Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis. Toronto: Groundwood Books, 2000. Set during the early days of the Taliban regime, this is the story of Parvana, an educated young girl who becomes the family breadwinner after her father is arrested. The novel describes the shift in Afghan society under the Taliban regime—one that excludes women and girls from work, school, and society. Free the Children: A Young Man Fights Against Child Labor and Proves that Children Can Change the World by Craig Kielburger and Kevin Major. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999. Reading accounts of Iqbal Masih’s efforts to free bonded children and his murder influenced young Craig Kielburger, with the aid of his friends, to create Free the Children, a human rights organization. This book chronicles the young activist’s journey to visit Asia’s working children and highlights what one dedicated young person can accomplish against seemingly insurmountable odds. debt-bonded children in Pakistan, 13-year-old Iqbal Masih was murdered. This fictionalized account of Iqbal’s life in the rug factories and his work to free the bonded children is told from the perspective of a co-worker. The short novel offers a voice to a courageous child no longer able to tell his story. Listen to Us: The World’s Working Children by Jane Springer. Toronto: Groundwood Books, 1997. Using statistics, photographs, and personal narratives to support informational text, this book describes reasons for child labor, type of work done by children, and how to help working children. Iqbal: A Novel by Francesco D’Adamo and translated by Ann Leonori. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2001. Shortly after winning international prizes for his efforts to free S o c i a l E d u c at i o n 264 abuses. Kelly Miliziano asks her students to consider: “Who are the people acting to defend human rights? What are the strategies that we can be involved with to make a difference? What can you do right now?”7 Because students have to internalize the information and will need to examine attitudes (their own as well as others), emphasis should be on active learning strategies that can develop these skills.8 Engaging strategies that can be used include case studies, role-plays, simulation games, problem-solving exercises, and discussion—both small and large group. For an excellent discussion about teaching for human rights, see Chapter 2 of the Human Rights Education Association’s Teaching for Human Rights: Grades 5-10, which is publicly accessible online.9 Last, teachers need to think carefully about assessing learning and growth of their students. The object should not be on evaluating whether students come to despErate times from page 262 either freed upon their release or held in detention for a specified amount of time before being released. 21 While the number of detainees currently housed at Guantánamo is significantly smaller than the 660 captives detained in November 2003, their likely fate is largely unclear. What is clear is that on four occasions lawyers for detainees have argued before the Supreme Court and on all four occasions the Court has ruled in their favor. It is also clear that both presidents Bush and Obama have wielded tremendous power when trying to balance the needs of securing the nation’s safety versus upholding the individual rights of those detained in the “War on Terror.” While there is no end in sight to the detainees’ captivity, we can hope that future decisions made by the U.S government will follow a course which reflects our nation’s values of human rights and the rule of law, including due process for those accused of crimes against the state. embrace a particular issue or cause, but rather whether they have understood the basic rights to which all human beings are entitled, whether they have wrestled with the issues, and whether they have come to personal understandings of what can be done to address the problems. Student journals and portfolio assessments that incorporate self-reflection are particularly well-suited for human rights education. Concluding Thoughts Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary explorations can serve not only as a source of information and knowledge, they can also provide inspiration to the next generation of human Notes 1. Joe Klein, “A Middle Ground on Enemy Combatants,” Time (May 21, 2009): 25. 2. Michael Ratner and Ellen Ray, Guantánamo: What the World Should Know (White River Junction, Vt.: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2003). 3. Ex Parte Merryman, 17 F Cas. 144 (1861) 4. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) 5. Ex Parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1 (1942) 6. “Military Order of November 13, 2001—Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War against Terrorism,” Federal Register 66, no. 222 (November 16, 2001). 7. “USA: Guantánamo Bay – New Report Shows 80% of Detainees in Solitary Confinement,” Amnesty International (April 2007), www.amnesty.org.uk/ news_details.asp?NewsID=17322. 8. Military Commission Act of 2006. Pub. L. No. 109366, 120 Stat. 2600 9. Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorist Act of 2001, Pub. L No. 107-40, 115 Stat. 224 and 225. 10. “USA: Guantánamo Bay – New Report Shows 80% of Detainees in Solitary Confinement.” 11. “Report on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment of Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba” Center for Constitutional Rights (July 2006), http://ccrjustice.org/learn-more/reports/ report:-torture-and-cruel,-inhuman,-and-degradingtreatment-prisoners-guantanamo-. 12. Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004) 13. Combatant Status Review Tribunals, http://humanrights.ucdavis.edu/projects/the-guantanamo-testimonials-project/testimonies/testimonies-of-the-defensedepartment/CSRT_new. O ctob e r 265 2 0 12 rights advocates. Notes 1. Kelly Miliziano, personal interview, April 28, 2009. 2. Ibid. 3. Kathy Bohan, personal interview, email correspondence, March 25, 2009. 4. Rachel May, personal interview, email correspondence, March 17, 2009. 5. Ibid. 6. United Nations CyberSchoolBus, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, www.un.org/cyber schoolbus/humanrights/resources/plain.asp. 7. Kelly Miliziano, personal interview, ibid. 8. Amnesty International, www.amnesty.org.au/human rightstoday/feature/teaching_for_human_rights_ online_teacher_guide/. 9. Human Rights Education Association, Teaching for Human Rights: Grades 5-10, www.hrea.org/erc/ Library/secondary/Teaching-HR-5-10/toc.html. Caroline C. Sheffield is an assistant professor of social studies education at the University of Louisville. Her research interests include literacy and technology in the social studies. She can be contacted at [email protected] Bárbara C. Cruz is professor of social science education at the University of South Florida. Her research and teaching interests include global and multicultural issues in education. She can be contacted at [email protected] 14. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2006) 15. Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008); “High court blocks Gitmo military tribunals,” www.cnn. com/2006/LAW/06/29/scotus.tribunals/index.html. 16. “BACKGROUND: President Obama signs Executive Orders on Detention and Interrogation Policy,” www. whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/background-president-obama-signs-executive-orders-detention-andinterrogation-polic 17. Jeffrey M. Jones, “Americans Oppose Closing Gitmo and Moving Prisoners to U.S.,” Gallup Politics, www. gallup.com/poll/119393/Americans-Oppose-ClosingGitmo-Moving-Prisoners.aspx. 18. “Guantanamo sparks Obama’s first fight with Congress,” TopNews, http://topnews.us/content/25303-guantanamo-sparks-obamas-first-fight-congress. 19. “Obama signs defense bill ‘with reservations’” CNN (December 31, 2011) http://articles.cnn.com/2011-1231/politics/politics_obama-defense-bill_1_civiliancustody-legislators-military-custody?_s=PM:POLITICS. 20. “By the Numbers,” The Miami Herald (Updated Sept 10, 2012), www.miamiherald.com/2007/11/27/322461/ by-the-numbers.html. 21. Ibid. Jason L. O’Brien is assistant professor of education at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama. His research interests lie in citizenship education and English Language Learners. He can be reached at [email protected] Kyle T. Barbieri teaches political science at Georgia Perimeter College, Georgia. His research interests are in American politics, public law and courts, and social science methods. He can be emailed at kyle. [email protected]
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