. Which Geologic Law did you use to come to the conclusion you made in the previous question? a. The Law of Superposition b. The Law of Cross-Cutting c. The Law of Original Horizontality d. Unconformities 5. Examine unconformities 1 and 2 indicated in Figure 1.9. Which of the following statements about them is true? a. The older unconformity is a Nonconformity, while the younger is an Angular Unconformity. b. The older unconformity is a Disconformity, while the younger is a Nonconformity. c. The older unconformity is a Nonconformity, while the younger is a Disconformity. d. The older unconformity is an Angular Unconformity, while the younger is a Disconformity. 5:07 | LTE C web.ung.edu INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 9/358 The Law of Original Horizontality states that undeformed sedimentary rock are deposited horizontally. The deposition of sediment is controlled by gravi- ty and will pull it downward. If you have muddy water on a slope, the water will flow down the slope and pool flat at the base rather than depositing on the slope itself. This means that if we see sedimentary rock that is tilted or folded it was first deposited flat, then folded or tilted afterward (Figure 1.3). The Law of Cross-Cutting Uplift and tilting states that when two geologic fea- tures intersect, the one that cuts across the other is younger. In es- sence, a feature has to be present before something can affect it. For example, if a fault fractures through a series of sedimentary rocks those sedimentary rocks must be older than the fault (Figure 1.4). Figure 1.3 Sedimentary rocks are deposited horizontally such that if the layers are tilted or folded it must have occurre One other feature that can be following deposition. useful in building relative time Author: Bradley Deline scales is what is missing in a se- Source: Original Work License: CC BY-SA 3.0 quence of rocks. Unconformi- ties are surfaces that represent significant weathering and ero- sion (the breakdown of rock and Fault movement of sediment) which re- sult in missing or erased time. Erosion often occurs in elevated areas like continents or moun- tains so pushing rocks up (called uplifting) results in erosion and destroying a part of a geologic se- Igneous quence; much older rocks are then Intrusion exposed at the earth’s surface. If the area sinks (called subsidence), Figure 1.4 Block diagrams showing the Law of Cross-Cuttir then much younger rocks will be in both instances on the right the geological features (fault o deposited overtop of these newly Igneous intrusion) cut across the sedimentary layers and mus exposed rocks. The amount of then be younger. time missing can be relatively Source: Original Work Author: Bradley Deline short or may represent billions of License: CC BY-SA 3.0 years. There are three types of unconformities based on the rocks above and below the unconformity (Figure 1.5). If the type of rock is different above and below the unconformity it is called a Nonconformity. For example, igneous rock formed deep in the earth is uplifted and exposed at the surface then covered with sedimen- tary rock. If the rocks above and below the erosion surface are both sedimentary, Page 5 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY Nonconformity Intrusion of igneous rock into sedimentary rocks Uplift and erosion Subsidence and deposition Intrusive Igneous Rock Angular Unconformity 11HHICH

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. Which Geologic Law did you use to come to the conclusion you made in the previous question? a. The Law of Superposition b. The Law of Cross-Cutting c. The Law of Original Horizontality d. Unconformities 5. Examine unconformities 1 and 2 indicated in Figure 1.9. Which of the following statements about them is true? a. The older unconformity is a Nonconformity, while the younger is an Angular Unconformity. b. The older unconformity is a Disconformity, while the younger is a Nonconformity. c. The older unconformity is a Nonconformity, while the younger is a Disconformity. d. The older unconformity is an Angular Unconformity, while the younger is a Disconformity. 5:07 | LTE C web.ung.edu INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 9/358 The Law of Original Horizontality states that undeformed sedimentary rock are deposited horizontally. The deposition of sediment is controlled by gravi- ty and will pull it downward. If you have muddy water on a slope, the water will flow down the slope and pool flat at the base rather than depositing on the slope itself. This means that if we see sedimentary rock that is tilted or folded it was first deposited flat, then folded or tilted afterward (Figure 1.3). The Law of Cross-Cutting Uplift and tilting states that when two geologic fea- tures intersect, the one that cuts across the other is younger. In es- sence, a feature has to be present before something can affect it. For example, if a fault fractures through a series of sedimentary rocks those sedimentary rocks must be older than the fault (Figure 1.4). Figure 1.3 Sedimentary rocks are deposited horizontally such that if the layers are tilted or folded it must have occurre One other feature that can be following deposition. useful in building relative time Author: Bradley Deline scales is what is missing in a se- Source: Original Work License: CC BY-SA 3.0 quence of rocks. Unconformi- ties are surfaces that represent significant weathering and ero- sion (the breakdown of rock and Fault movement of sediment) which re- sult in missing or erased time. Erosion often occurs in elevated areas like continents or moun- tains so pushing rocks up (called uplifting) results in erosion and destroying a part of a geologic se- Igneous quence; much older rocks are then Intrusion exposed at the earth’s surface. If the area sinks (called subsidence), Figure 1.4 Block diagrams showing the Law of Cross-Cuttir then much younger rocks will be in both instances on the right the geological features (fault o deposited overtop of these newly Igneous intrusion) cut across the sedimentary layers and mus exposed rocks. The amount of then be younger. time missing can be relatively Source: Original Work Author: Bradley Deline short or may represent billions of License: CC BY-SA 3.0 years. There are three types of unconformities based on the rocks above and below the unconformity (Figure 1.5). If the type of rock is different above and below the unconformity it is called a Nonconformity. For example, igneous rock formed deep in the earth is uplifted and exposed at the surface then covered with sedimen- tary rock. If the rocks above and below the erosion surface are both sedimentary, Page 5 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY Nonconformity Intrusion of igneous rock into sedimentary rocks Uplift and erosion Subsidence and deposition Intrusive Igneous Rock Angular Unconformity 11HHICH

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