HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare HCM520: WEEK 3 Paper Week 3 Paper: Leadership & Quality Improvement Initiatives Choose a current article from the following website about hospital leadership and a quality improvement initiative: https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration.html?%C2%A0 Instructions: Write an essay that summarizes the article by including the following: • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Level of management (CEO, physician, nurse, etc.) implementing initiative What is the challenge/issue/problem? What are the goals of the quality improvement initiative? What statistical tools were used to measure quality improvement? What were the results of the improvement initiative? Could management have handled this better? In other words, should adjustments or changes have been made for better outcomes? If so, what? What is the impact of results on the organization? Patient outcomes? As a healthcare leader, what are three key take-a-ways from the article that really stood out to you? Why? Conclude with a commentary regarding how positive leadership can be applied in the workplace to improve healthcare quality goals. Conclusion Submission Requirements: Your paper should meet the following requirements: • • • Be 3 – 4 pages in length, not including the cover or reference pages. Provide full APA citations for articles selected along with associated in-text citations. Utilize headings to organize the content in your work. Week 2: Discussion Post ~ 300-500 words. The Manager’s Role In this discussion, you are to think of an instance in which you had or observed an experience of excellent healthcare quality. You may have had this experience as a customer, patient, provider, or employee. • • • • • Describe the factors that made this experience excellent and how you felt as a result. Include a description of the management’s influence on your experience. Do the same for a situation in which you experienced poor quality. What is the role of leadership pertaining to quality? What is your leadership style and how can you use it to improve quality? Page 1 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare References for Paper / Discussion Post: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019, September 7). Leadership role in improving safety Links to an external site.. PSNet. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/leadership-role-improvingsafety American College of Healthcare Executives. (2020). ACHE healthcare executive 2020 competencies assessment tool. https://www.ache.org/-/media/ache/career-resourcecenter/competencies_booklet.pdf Andersen, L. B., Bjørnholt, B., Bro, L. L., & Holm-Petersen, C. (2018). Achieving high quality through transformational leadership: A qualitative multilevel analysis of transformational leadership and perceived professional quality Links to an external site.. Public Personnel Management, 47(1), 51– 72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026017747270 Borkowski, N. & Meese, K.A. (2021). Organizational behavior in health care. Jones and Bartlett Learning. Burns, M. J. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row. Gandolfi, F., & Stone, S. (2018). Leadership, leadership styles, and servant leadership Links to an external site.. Journal of Management Research (09725814), 18(4), 261–269. Kenney, C. (2019). Purpose and character: The ultimate differentiators of a legacy leader. Links to an external site.American Journal of Health Promotion, 33(7), 1087– 1090. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117119866957d Spath, Patrice L. (2022). Applying quality management in healthcare: a systems approach (5th ed.). Health Administration Press. **THIS IS OUR TEXTBOOK** Transactional Leadership Theories. (n.d.). Leadership-central. http://www.leadershipcentral.com/transactional-leadership-theories.html#axzz4vsLkYTse Ward, S. (2018, August 22). Leadership definition. The Balance Small Business. https://www.thebalance.com/leadership-definition-2948275 Zellman, M. (2019, March 4). The advantages of transformational leadership style. Chron. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-transformational-leadership-style-18809.html Page 2 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare ***Helpful Resources from this week’s readings for Paper***: The Role of Leadership in Managing and Implementing Quality Initiatives This module focuses on the role of leadership in managing and implementing quality initiatives throughout healthcare organizations. In this module, you will explore and analyze different styles, theories, and traits of leadership to develop your thoughts on what type of leadership is necessary to provide quality healthcare. Learning Outcomes 1. Connect the impact of leadership to promoting and managing quality initiatives. 2. Interpret the changing leadership role for providers. 3. Compare and contrast several leadership styles and assess their effectiveness in healthcare. 4. Classify those involved in managing change initiatives. Defining leadership is an elusive undertaking. Multiple theories on leadership styles, skills, and traits strive to define components of effective leaders. It is likely you have encountered a variety of leaders in your work environments, each with particular styles, skills, and traits. Based on your experiences, how would you define effective leadership? Have you found effective leaders to be inspiring and motivating? Do the effective leaders you have encountered possess one specific leadership style? Take a moment to think of your definition of leadership. Now that you have a definition, identify a healthcare leader that fits your leadership definition. Keep this individual in mind to use as a comparison for our work in this module. The healthcare arena is not selective of any one style or theory of leadership. As you move through this module and learn more about the role of leadership in managing and implementing quality initiatives, you will also have the opportunity to begin to analyze your strengths and weaknesses in a leadership role. 1. What is Quality in Leadership? While leadership and its study have existed since the beginning of history, paradoxically, we cannot define the concept precisely. Ward (2018) defined leadership as “the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal” (para. 1). Do you see the leadership role in healthcare in the 21st century challenged with complexities? Do you feel multiple driving forces impact leadership decisions, thus creating extraordinary challenges? The financial climate alone can change the landscape of the whole organization. We must be cognizant of how this can affect leaders in a healthcare environment. Leaders must maintain a clear purpose with realistic goals. Organizations can Page 3 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare face difficulties when they are already financially challenged, and unrealistic goals are set for subordinates. Leaders can lose their followers rapidly when the goals are not achievable. To get an inside look at what leadership is and what it entails, view the following video segment from Alex Haslam. Haslam defines leadership, explains why it is needed, and discusses the limitations of a traditional leadership approach (See video) https://youtu.be/p4OvjOVkacY In the fast-paced environment of healthcare, having the ability to motivate and guide improvement is a major component of leadership. In fact, according to Spath (2022) “Leaders must nurture a culture of continuous improvement, high reliability, and accountability” (p. 80) and “…must constantly look for ways to make things better” (p. 74). Additionally, to achieve effectiveness, leaders must combine their knowledge of management and quality to understand and improve the organization (Spath, 2022). The readings for this module provide a comprehensive approach to identifying leadership theories, styles, and roles, as well as how leadership is involved in change processes. 2. Leadership in the 21st Century: The Opportunity to Transform Environments Many theories in leadership, though developed in other fields, can and will be applied to the healthcare environment. They are quite individual, depending on each leader’s ability, knowledge, and experience. Transformational, servant, situational, and transactional are just a few of the leadership theories/styles you may encounter within your career. The entire process of improvement can be viewed in many dimensions. How do we link the leader to a transformational process or any other leadership theory? Can the organizational mission, vision, and values affect the style leaders adopt? Borkowski and Meese (2021) support the transformational leadership role and see it as vital to an organization’s success. They state, “Because of regulatory changes, financial pressures, and evolving care delivery models, health care organizations will be transformed in many ways in the years to come” (p. 209). Leaders must increase their transformational skills because they will experience increasing demands to demonstrate high performance and quality outcomes while reducing cost in the midst of decreasing revenues (Borkowski & Meese, 2021). Given this endorsement for using a transformational leadership approach, what about the other prominent leadership styles? Can a transactional or charismatic leader provide what is necessary for the organization? Most leadership theories started in other fields, but they have been transferred and translated into the healthcare industry. How do we make sure that the theories and styles we select are appropriate within current healthcare organizations? Page 4 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare Image Caption: Arrows pointing to transformational leadership: leveraging your emotional intelligence, building strategic relationships, leading through change, translating strategy into action, developing employee capability. Page 5 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare 3. Leadership Styles in Promoting and Managing Quality We have addressed the fact that many theories and styles of leadership are utilized in our healthcare arenas. The specific leadership styles examined in our course include transformational, transactional, and servant. These styles of leadership are the most well-known and embody a contemporary approach, addressing what is occurring in our healthcare systems, what customers need and want, and how the team will deliver the optimal quality service they are striving for. However, other styles may also be used in the field. 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-different-types-leadership-styles-17584.html Level 5 Leadership: https://www.mindtools.com/atqwpnm/level-5-leadership Sir MacGregor Burns introduced the concepts of transformational and transactional leadership in 1978. He viewed the follower as having input into the process, becoming reciprocal. Eventually, he proposed the possibility of leaders and followers working together. What is the act of transforming leadership? The act of transforming leadership, according to Burns (1978), raises the level of the followers’ morality of conduct and ethical aspirations to lead to active engagement. Click through the following activity to learn more. Transformational leadership attempts and succeeds in raising colleagues, subordinates, followers, clients, or constituencies to a greater awareness of the issues of consequence. According to Zellman (2018), a benefit of the transformational leadership style is that managers have the adeptness to retain employees. This retention can be a major incentive for healthcare organizations, given the need for highly qualified and dedicated workers. Transactional leadership, in comparison, is based off of performance and reward and consists of task accomplishment and the maintenance of a good leader/subordinate relationship (Borkowski & Meese, 2021). What is deemed valuable may be different for each transactional leader and their organization, but the principle remains the same. This style of leadership often relies on a system of rewards and punishments. Some criticisms of this style are that not every employee may be personally motivated by the rewards being offered; additionally, transactional leadership does not take social values into account (Leadership-central.com, n.d.). Servant leadership was first developed in the 1970s. It “focuses on serving the highest needs of other people in an effort to help others to achieve their goals” (Borkowski & Meese, 2021, p. 213, as cited in Greenleaf, 1969). This style of leadership requires that the leader makes a personal investment in his or her employees; the leader must value the contributions of the team and encourage each person to grow in their abilities and interests. If you are interested, you can learn more about the Ten Principles of Servant Leadership. 10 Principles f Servant Leadership (and Why It’s Our Favorite Style): https://www.teamgantt.com/blog/servant-leadership Page 6 HCM520: Quality & Performance in Healthcare The styles, theories, and thoughts of leadership you have learned about in this module vary greatly in defining leadership. Have you been involved with any of the types of leadership that were discussed in this module? In summary, the leadership theories/styles presented here have been and will continue to be used in the healthcare setting. Now that we have explored leadership and leadership styles ask yourself: Are you a leader or a follower? If you are a follower, what will engage you to follow the leader? If you are the leader, what is your philosophical approach to leadership? What leadership theory might you subscribe to in the leader role? Healthcare Leaders While all leaders have specific characteristics that define them as transformational, transactional, or servant leaders, healthcare leaders also require additional skills and knowledge to be effective in the constantly evolving healthcare environment. Review the healthcare leadership assessment tool.by the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) to see what is expected of leaders in the three stages of career development: novice, competent, and expert. https://www.ache.org/-/media/ache/career-resource-center/competencies_booklet.pdf Page 7
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