Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas:What are the implications of labeling human behaviors (and by extension, human beings) as normal or abnormal?What are some of the consequences of labeling in the workplace?Provide an example of how specific abnormal behaviors were viewed in the past in the workplace (e.g., postpartum depression).Has this perspective changed from the past? If so, how?How can unusual behaviors be classified and identified without negative consequences to people?The materials found in the M.U.S.E. may help you with this assignment such as the article Abnormal Versus Normal.REfrences & readings:Textbook: Durand V. M., Barlow D. H., & Hofmann S. G.: Chapter 1 (pages 3-26), Chapter 2 (pages 34-66), & Chapter 7 (pages 249-277)Abnormal psychology has been historically perceived as a study about strange or unusual disorders. When studying this topic, some may expect to learn about extreme examples of people with dramatic disorders and psychological challenges. This misconception is further complicated by the past horrors of insane asylums, where residents were chained to walls or who had holes drilled in their heads to let out the evil spirits that had possessed them. Alternatively, some believe that abnormal psychology is the study of the criminally insane and of those individuals who inflicted damage on others as a result of their mental illness.Because psychology is a science, you should begin with a scientific approach. Psyche means soul, and ology means the study of. Therefore, abnormal psychology is the study of the abnormal soul. To understand the abnormal aspect of psychology, you must first consider what is normal. That question provides the backdrop for the exploration of abnormal psychology.Is the mother who delivers her baby after 36–40 weeks of pregnancy considered normal? Is a child who learns to walk around 12 months of age normal? Is a family that is made up of a mother, father, a female child, and a male child (the nuclear family) normal? Many people assume that these facts constitute an indisputable truth about normalcy, but are these assumptions accurate? In a magazine article from 1945, Dr. Daniel Beltz reported that the pregnancy of Mrs. Beulah Hunter was 375 days (a typical pregnancy is 280 days) (Medicine: Prodigious Pregnancy, 1945). On the other end of the range is James Gill, born in 1987 to Brenda and James Gill in Canada who weighed 1 lb 6 ounces and was born after only 152 gestational days (Guinness, n.d.). Ask your mother at what age you took your first steps. It is likely that she will say that it happened earlier or later than normal. In some cases, children in the same family walk between 10 and 20 months. Was the early walker special? What about the late walker: was he or she abnormal? All six of those children now walk well and have done so for many years. According to data from the U.S. Census (2010), the average household size is not 4 people but 2.59 people. Additional information from the Census survey describing families in the United States includes the following (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010):The percentage of households headed by a married couple who had children under 18 living with them declined to 21 percent in 2010, down from 24 percent in 2000.The percentage of children under 18 living with two married parents declined to 66 percent in 2010, down from 69 percent in 2000.The information provided above demonstrates how difficult it is to define normalcy. It is so difficult, in fact, that many social science researchers have discontinued the use of the term normal in their descriptions of the human subjects whom they study.Another misconception regarding normalcy is that normal is good, and abnormal is bad (Spoor, 1999). This poses a similar dilemma as that of normalcy. Who is responsible for defining what is good and what is bad? Is it up to the courts to decide? Do churches determine what is good and bad for society? The definition of good or bad is determined within each individual based on his or her experiences in life and in the learning that occurs in his or her early formative years. How can one say that one individual’s view of normal (good) is correct and applicable to all? Those behaviors, ideas, feelings, or perceptions that are considered abnormal (bad), may be for some individuals, a common part of his or her life.ReferencesGuiness. (n.d.). Guiness world records 2004 (Guiness book of records): Excerpt. Retrieved from the Powell’s City of Books Web site: http://www.powells.com/biblio?show=0553587129&page=excerptMedicine: Prodigious pregnancy. (1945). Retrieved from the Time Magazine Web site: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,797153,00.htmlSpoor, K. (1999). What is abnormal? Retrieved from the A Beginner’s Guide to Abnormal Psychology Web site: http://www.purgatory.net/merits/abnormal.htmU.S. Census Bureau. (2010, November 10). U.S. Census Bureau reports men and women wait longer to marry. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/families_households/cb10-174.html#2What is the difference between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5?The DSM-5 stands for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 5th edition. The DSM is used by therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrics to assist in making a diagnosis on a client’s mental disorder. The DSM is used by the legal system to help determine if a person’s mental disorder played a role in a particular case. However, the American Psychiatric Association would caution about the use in forensic situation because the person utilizing the DSM may not be a trained professional. There have been five editions of the DSM published, and the current edition (DSM-5) was published in May of 2013.A major change between the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 was that the DSM-IV utilized a multiaxial approach, whereas the DSM-5 uses a nonaxial system.One of the goals of the DSM-5 task force was to make it easier for health care professionals to use the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) and the DSM-5 in tandem. The DSM-5 went to a nonaxial approach by combining the information that was on Axis I, Axis II, and Axis III into the primary diagnosis. Although the DSM-5 chose to eliminate Axis IV, this information can be still be coded using the Z codes in the ICD-10 and ICD-11. The American Psychiatric Association eliminated Axis V, the GAF scale, because of reliability and validity issues.In the DSM-5 there was some restructuring of chapters or sections, the adding of new chapters or sections, the deletion of some disorders, and the addition of new disorders. An example of a chapter being restructured is that in DSM-IV, there was a chapter called Mood Disorders, which contained diagnoses such as Major Depression, Bipolar I Disorder, and Cyclothymic Disorder. In the DSM-5, the mood disorders are now broken into two separate chapters called Depressive Disorders and Bipolar and Related Disorders. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder appears for the first time in the DSM-5 in the Depressive Disorders chapter. Another notable change in the DSM-5 is the elimination of Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS, Children Disintegrative Disorder, and Asperger’s Disorder because it is now encompassed in the diagnosis called Autism Spectrum Disorder. There are many more changes that happened from the DSM-IV to the DSM-5, which you can review by visiting the American Psychiatric Association Web site.ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). DSM-5 implementation and support. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx
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