1 Case Studies – Interviews 2 Case Study Interview Question In contemporary society, the general costs attributed to health care have continued to rise. As a result, employers, administrators, and managers in the healthcare industry have been searching for ways to cut costs to minimal levels. Designing wellness programs to improve or maintain patients’ behavior to reduce health risks and improve health quality. Some advantages can be obtained from a well-executed program. An effective wellness program’s benefits include reducing healthcare costs, increasing employee retention in healthcare industries, and supporting the correlation between personal health and job satisfaction. This case study conducted interviews with people from different age groups to design appropriate health and wellness education programs that fit each age group. Case Study Interview 1: Adolescent In this case study, the interviewee was a thirteen-year-old girl, Lesley. From the interview, Lesley claimed that her physical health was progressing reasonably well. However, the interview reveals that she suffers from depressive and anxiety mental health issues. The cause of the issues was that she was experiencing rapid growth in different aspects of his life. Rapee et al. (2019) say individuals may suffer from mental health issues due to abnormal psychological, cognitive and physical growth. During the interview session, Leslie claimed that all these developments affected her feelings, thoughts, interactions with other people, and how she made decisions. When inquired about her health needs in her age group, Lesley claimed that for her to develop in good health, she needs good health information from relevant sectors. She mentioned comprehensive sex education, setting up skills, developing opportunities, and having health services that are effective, appropriate, and acceptable. She added that she looks forward to dwelling in environments that feel safe and supportive. 3 Case Study Interview 2: Middle Adulthood Mary functioned as the primary respondent for this interview. Mary is a 53-year-old woman residing in New York. From observation, Mary seemed to be healthy physically wise. However, Mary disclosed that many physical changes had occurred at this stage of her life. According to her, the physical changes indicated that she was getting old. She revealed that her skin had lost elasticity, and her grey hair was gradually changing into white. Additionally, Mary affirmed that she experienced menopause when she turned 45 years. Mary claimed that her primary goal would be to become a self-actualized woman by the time she reaches 50 years. The interviewee affirmed that she needs a solid grasp of who she is and what she can do at this phase of life. Self–actualization can be attained by meeting all the specific needs that enable the individual to enjoy life and nature (Hopper, 2020). According to Mary, not being able to meet some of her needs meant that she was yet to figure out her nature. Fulfilling the self-actualization need could make her feel capable and confident. Thus, she claimed that she needed information on ways of feeling self-actualized. Case Study Interview 3: Late Adulthood For this age group, the interview engaged Peter, a 72-year-old man living in a nursing home in News York. Peter suffers from heart disease, whose severity is increased by his underlying condition of high blood pressure. According to him, the cardiovascular system is quite vulnerable as age progresses. Peter stressed that his doctors had revealed that his arteries and blood vessels had stiffened, thus tasking the heart to work extra when pumping blood. However, Peter hoped that his heart would adjust later to keep up with the workload. Courtesy of appropriate medical intervention, patients with cardiovascular and heart diseases enjoy stabilized heart rates even during physical activities (Zanvar et al., 2020). However, the authors affirm that 4 seniors are at a higher risk of heart-related diseases. Peter suggested that he needed information on how to maintain his blood pressure level. Moreover, Peter stated that he needed to connect emotionally and physically with his loved ones. Peter affirmed that sometimes, he felt disconnected from his children, relatives, and friends, affecting his general health. Summary and Analysis of the Collected Data Inarguably, different age groups have different needs in terms of health and wellness. For adolescents, for instance, the interviewee revealed that individuals in this age group undergo growth in different aspects of their lives, causing mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. The interview revealed that physical and psychological growth might instigate adolescent mental health issues. These developments significantly impact how they feel, think, and their relations with other people (Mathmainnah et al., 2022). Furthermore, the interview revealed that adolescents need comprehensive sex education and information on how to deal with physical and psychological changes. Moreover, contemporary adolescents must be guaranteed safety and security in their environments. The second interview revealed that many middle-aged adults are in dire need of selfactualization. In order to attain self-actualization, other needs must be met (Tekke, 2019). Therefore, before attaining self-actualization, individuals must fulfill their safety, esteem, and psychological needs, among others. When middle-aged adults attain self-actualization, they feel confident and capable. Conclusively, developing strategies for middle-aged adults to feel selfactualized is the appropriate program for health and wellness. Lastly, seniors undergo many changes during the latter phase of their life. The interview revealed that one of the significant changes that take place is the adverse changes in the 5 cardiovascular system (Zanvar et al., 2020). The authors affirm that these changes could be attributed to the rising prevalence of heart and cardiovascular diseases among the older cohorts. Therefore, seniors must be informed on how they can identify, manage and mitigate heart diseases. Furthermore, seniors should interact, engage, and connect with their loved ones to fulfill their psychological needs during the latter phase of life. Potential Health and Wellness program Ideas to Address the Need of Each Lifespan Stage When setting up specific health and wellness programs for adolescents, medical practitioners and relevant stakeholders should appreciate that their target populations are transitioning from childhood and adulthood. During adolescence, members of the age group undergo many psychological and physical changes. Stakeholders must admit that these changes affect their mental health. Therefore, it would be prudent for contemporary school administrators and leaders to incorporate a counseling department in their schools that would encourage adolescents and teenagers to share their feelings and emotions. When they share their feelings, teachers, parents, friends, and guardians will understand their issues and needs (Rapee et al., 2019). Moreover, schools should also incorporate sex education in their curriculums. Courtesy of sex education lessons, adolescents would be able to make appropriate and informed decisions. Lastly, the wellness program should cover ways of having and maintaining good relationships. The wellness program for middle-aged adults should stress self-actualization. Health and wellness experts should focus on enhancing the acceptance and esteem of contemporary middleaged adults who are mainly experiencing mid-life crises. The wellness programs would include motivational speakers and coaches emphasizing the need to learn to accept the processes and outcomes in their lives. The wellness programs would enable the participants to work with 6 situations as they turn out rather than yielding to frustrations that result from hope. In essence, accepting the unknowns of life is another meaning of acceptance. Self-actualization can also be achieved by living spontaneously. Living spontaneously means enjoying each moment as it comes and avoiding worrying about what someone should do (Tekke,2019). The author affirms that although feeling safe with what someone knows is accessible, that urge should be fought, chances should be taken, and new things should be tried. Lastly, many seniors that face the threat of suffering from heart disease stress their need to be close to being with their loved ones. The wellness program should incorporate the patient’s family members, relatives, and friends in addressing this issue. Spending time with their loved ones will make seniors feel connected to them, thus fulfilling their psychological needs and improving their health. Furthermore, the wellness program should emphasize the need to eliminate tasks in their routines and schedules (Hadiyani et al., 2021). According to the authors, the tasks should be broken into smaller ones that can be more manageable. Conclusion In conclusion, different age groups have different health and wellness needs. The interviews revealed that the requirements of adolescents, middle-aged adults, and seniors range from physical, physiological, self-actualization, and social needs. The differences in these needs are caused by the different levels of growth in their bodies. Therefore, before designing wellness programs, it is quite essential to understand the mechanisms that drive changes between people from different age groups. 7 References Hadiyani, W., Juniarni, L., & Putri, T. A. R. K. (2021). Description of Palliative Care Needs Among the Elderly in Indonesia. KnE Life Sciences, 356-362. Hopper, E. (2020). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 24. Muthmainnah, M., Salim, L. A., Nurmala, I., Devi, Y. P., & Eliana, L. (2022). What are Adolescent Health Information Needs in the Pandemic Era?. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(8), 8518-8524. Rapee, R. M., Oar, E. L., Johnco, C. J., Forbes, M. K., Fardouly, J., Magson, N. R., & Richardson, C. E. (2019). Adolescent development and risk for the onset of socialemotional disorders: A review and conceptual model. Behaviour research and therapy, 123, 103501. Tekke, M. (2019). The Highest Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchical Needs: Self-actualization and Self-transcendence. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(4). Zanvar, V., & Revanwar, M. (2020). Demographic profile and health status of selected elderly. Appendices 8 Appendix 1: Interview Questions 1. What’s your name? 2. How old are you? 3. What are some of the physical and psychological changes you have experienced in this age group? 4. How are you feeling today? Do you feel healthy or sick? 5. As an individual, what type of health information can assist you? 1 Case Studies – Course Design 1 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Course The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) program guarantees everyone lives well and advances well-being at all ages. However, this program will be ideal for the health and well-being of children and is essential to achieving this aim at the age of 5 to 19 years (Ross et al., 2020). Adolescents (5–19 years old) are at least as susceptible to this as any other age group for the course. According to the interview, the main goal of the development program is to prepare for the unequal advancement of children’s and adolescents’ health in their environment. Ross and associates (2020) state that health and well-being requirements vary considerably among age groups. Health education, such as effective teaching, quality health services, supportive environment at home, community, and country, is crucial to a healthy transition into adulthood. These issues are addressed in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Course. Physical, physiological, self-actualization and social needs were all identified via interviews as essential to teenagers, middle-aged people, and the elderly. The varying stages of development in their bodies account for the disparity in these requirements. Therefore, it is essential to understand the factors that cause variations amongst individuals of various age groups before establishing health programs. The SDGs lesson program will be taught in a Healthy Environment Classroom using visual aids like charts and drawings highlighting the importance of clean water, proper hygiene, and a secure learning space free from unnecessary dangers. Capabilities necessary for avoiding potential hazards Adolescents will benefit from this because they will have more chances to have their voices heard and be considered in essential matters. They will be able to exert more control over their surroundings as their abilities and maturity level increase. 3 The Learning Cycle Elicit This design will have the backgrounds and experiences of the students involved and need tact and thoughtfulness in conversation to develop in school activities. Record a video while this is done so that students feel comfortable opening up and discussing their lives and thoughts in class (Borbaš, 2019). Under the umbrella topic of “wellness,” students may discuss how to encourage health and longevity at any early age. This tactic should also guarantee access to highquality education and inspire people of all ages to keep studying throughout their lives. Engage Then afterwards, have to play the video you just saw for your class as the first step. The backgrounds and experiences of the students involved need tact and thoughtfulness while designing a conversation for these activities. In this approach, students may understand what is meant when the term “SDG” is used. You may now begin your investigation of the SDGs. This is done, so students feel comfortable opening up and discussing their lives and thoughts in class. Explore Have a jigsaw puzzle for the student’s to solve. When they’re done, let them go at all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (Borba, 2019). The kids will better understand the meaning of various objectives via flashcard activity. Take advantage of this activity to ensure that the students never forget the objectives. These are, of course, only the surface details; for any objective, one may delve into further depth (Ross et al., 2020). This will be through helping students know what it means to “Ensure sustainable management of water and sanitation for everybody,” for instance. What steps must be made to accomplish this objective? 4 Explain Talk about the SDGs in a class by bringing the students together. This will be done by getting the students to sit in a circle and have them each bring something that symbolizes who they are. The distinct SDGs may be brought out by placing a bottle (or another tall item) in the center of a circle (Borba, 2019). Students must now arrange their materials in the designated space to complete this activity. It might be set down at their feet, or it can be set down in the center beside the bottle. In addition, they are free to put it wherever in the range. Their item’s location determines the SDG’s significance to a specific student. Whether they prioritize climate change awareness or decent education makes no difference. The more critical this aim is to them, the closer the item is to the bottle in the center. Investigate the justifications they provide for prioritizing one objective above others (Ross et al., 2020). Elaborate (or Expand) The Sustainable Development Goals might be challenging to explain to young children, but the ready-to-use board game Go objectives make it fun and easy to learn about these goals and how everyone can help achieve them. Even if this is a fun and educational activity for the classroom, printing enough copies of the game’s materials for each class would be a significant time and resource drain. That’s why the following resource has a digital adaptation of the game. Evaluate In this configuration, the teacher should employ a digital randomization widget in conjunction with a modified deck of original playing cards. You’ll need to print out this set of cards and arrange them numerically by hand (Borba, 2019). The students spin the goal-related wheel 5 and respond to the next question. The questions in this electronic version of the game are identical to those in the classic paper version. Select your desired objective by clicking the white circle. This plan is embedded in a larger body of work that includes a multistakeholder call to action to put the health and happiness of adolescents first. Extend Put your students’ understanding of the SDGs to the test with a quiz and checklist. If the class passes the test quickly, then they could choose to start planning their venture. Take action to help reach one of the Sustainable Development Goals! Discover easy ways that you and your students may contribute. Use this checklist to have your students think about the consequences of their actions, whether at school or home. Get them to speak out and demonstrate the value of sustainable development to their parents and loved ones so they may feel empowered, too. Have your kids make a list of what they’ve accomplished so far. The student will be encouraged to repeat the process. References Borbaš, B. (2019, December 12). 10 ready-to-use lesson plans on the sustainable development goals. BookWidgets. Retrieved October 13, 2022, 6 from https://www.bookwidgets.com/blog/2019/12/10-ready-to-use-lesson-plans-on-thesustainable-development-goals Ross, D. A., Hinton, R., Melles-Brewer, M., Engel, D., Zeck, W., Fagan, L., Herat, J., Phaladi, G., Imbago-Jácome, D., Anyona, P., Sanchez, A., Damji, N., Terki, F., Baltag, V., Patton, G., Silverman, A., Fogstad, H., Banerjee, A., & Mohan, A. (2020). Adolescent well-being: A definition and conceptual framework. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(4), 472-476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.06.042 1 Case Studies – Course Design 2 Know, Want, and Learn Chart (KWN’s) Case Studies – Course Design 2 Know, Want, and Learn Chart (KWN’s) The Learning Cycle Elicit 2 The activity I will use to determine the three learners ’prior knowledge on the topic is displaying the KWL chart on the wall using the projector in the classroom. The KWL chart is an acronym for Know, Want, and Learn. In the Know section, the three health and wellness students will share their knowledge about the topic. During this time, student’s will inform us what they know about the adolescence stage and its relationship with mental health issues like anxiety and depression. Adolescence triggers mental health concerns that may be detrimental if not addressed (García-Carrión et al., 2019). Next, the students will describe what they know about selfactualization and life enjoyment. Lastly, students will state what they know about cardiovascular diseases and other health related issues that are prevalent in late adulthood. Student’s will also address their wants for each stage of development in the Want section of the chart, and address what they want to learn about the different stages of development in the Learn section of the chart. The student’s will have the option to either write their responses or share them verbally. Engage At this stage, I will instruct the learners to focus on the board for a short video projection. Afterward, I will display a short video using the projector and guide the students to take note of the different scenes. The 3-minute video, which I will have designed before the class, will begin by displaying images of a child under the mother’s care. Afterward, the video will show scenes of the same child, now in adolescence, attending school. The third scene will display the same girl now becoming a woman and taking care of her family. The last scenes will show the woman in her elderly years struggling to perform simple tasks and now relying on her children and grandchildren. Indeed, human needs and well-being demands change as they transit from childhood to late adulthood (Sjöblom et al., 2018). Explore 3 I will use the question-and-answer technique to present the lessons to the students. I will start by asking them to describe the specific changes they experienced while entering this stage. Afterward, I will reinforce the need for supportive relationships at school and home to help adolescents address challenges such as depression associated with this stage. A primary strategy to overcome depression and anxiety associated with adolescence is guidance and counseling (García-Carrión et al., 2019). In the case of middle adulthood, I will display Maslow’s hierarchy of needs via the projector and help students identify the needs they must meet before attaining self-actualization. Using the question-and-answer technique, I will identify student’s needs that have not been met and what can be done to meet them. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs encompasses the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs (Hayre-Kwan et al., 2021). I will then introduce students to the discussion of late adulthood health concerns by describing cardiovascular complications and other health related issues associated with late adulthood. Explain At this stage, all the learners will get the opportunity to report what they learned on their respective health and wellness topics. During this time, the students will lead a discussion to explain how the lesson has assisted them in understanding how the transition from adolescence to adulthood has affected them. On the other hand, students will lead a discussion on what self- actualization means to them and how life has been after the age of 50. Middle adulthood is a demanding stage with conflicting needs (Kaufman, 2018). The student’s will use insights from the lesson to lead a discussion about cardiovascular complications and their perceptions of life. Student’s will also talk about other health complications they face in adulthood. The vocabulary I will select for the adolescence stage is the emotional burden of transition. I will present the 4 vocabulary by asking them to compare their emotional status before and during adolescence. For middle adulthood, the vocabulary I will use will describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. I will present the vocabulary by drawing a pyramid diagram showing human needs from the basic ones at the bottom to advanced ones, in this case, self-actualization at the top. For late adulthood, the vocabulary I will use will be cardiovascular lapse and health care. I will present the vocabulary by listing all cardiovascular complications in old age and how to address them through proper health care. Elaborate (or expand) After the presentations and reporting, I will invite a health and wellness expert to add further details to the discussion. For instance, in discussing adolescence, they will highlight the strategies to overcome risk factors like feelings of stress, inability to make sound decisions, and over-expectations from friends and family. According to Farley (2020), adolescents are a vulnerable population predisposed to several risk factors that could endanger their well-being and others. In the case of middle adulthood, the expert will highlight the needs that have not been met and help to identify strategies to attain self-actualization before late adulthood. The health expert will provide students with a healthy late-adulthood framework based on the challenges noted during the discussion. All the learners will note down 5 strategies they intend to implement within 20 days to improve their health and well-being after the lesson. This will help them apply what they learned to improve their health outcomes. Evaluate I will issue the learners with self-assessment notebooks where they will note their daily activities that improve their health and well-being. Students can rely on a caregiver who can record daily activities, including social interactions and medication use. Moreover, students will 5 record any improvements in variables such as reduced depression in adolescence and reduced hospitalizations in the case of late adulthood. I will collect the booklets every two weeks to analyze the learner’s adherence to agreed health and wellness frameworks. Extend I will be inviting the participants to other health and wellness classes where they can help disseminate the acquired knowledge to other people. The students will accompany me to health and wellness sessions targeting adolescents. On the other hand, students will invite me to health and well-being sessions where the target group will be middle adults struggling to cope with the realities of advancing age amidst increasing demands in life. Student’s will lastly accompany me to health and well-being lessons for late adults, where they will lead discussions of health challenges in late adulthood and how to cope with them. 6 References Farley, H. R. (2020). Assessing mental health in vulnerable adolescents. Nursing, 50(10), 4853. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nurse.0000697168.39814.93 García-Carrión, R., Villarejo-Carballido, B., & Villardón-Gallego, L. (2019). Children and adolescents mental health: A systematic review of interaction-based interventions in schools and communities. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00918 Hayre-Kwan, S., Quinn, B., Chu, T., Orr, P., & Snoke, J. (2021). Nursing and Maslow’s hierarchy. Nurse Leader, 19(6), 590-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mnl.2021.08.013 Kaufman, S. B. (2018). Self-actualizing people in the 21st century: Integration with contemporary theory and research on personality and well-being. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 002216781880918. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167818809187 Sjöblom, M., Öhrling, K., & Kostenius, C. (2018). Useful life lessons for health and well-being: Adults’ reflections of childhood experiences illuminate the phenomenon of the inner child. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 13(1), 1441592. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2018.1441592 1 Case Studies – Theoretical Support 2 Theoretical Support for Growth and Learning Inarguably, teachers and educators should optimize and apply existing theories, models, and frameworks when planning, devising and implementing their instructional strategies and lesson plans (Martin et al., 2019). Contemporary teachers should consume and understand the existing educational theories and frameworks that hypothesize and outlines the psychological, physiological, and cognitive changes that occur during the growth process. Enthusiastic teachers and educators in contemporary schools and institutions should be in a position to learn how to exploit the frameworks to identify the different learning needs and deliver appropriate content for their prospective parents (Fauth et al., 2019). In essence, the theories poise and enable teachers to effectively understand students’ learning needs and processes based on their age. Teachers and educators should be able to comprehend and disambiguate the different components of the theories in their respective activities and practices. Stakeholders in the field of education should necessitate need for administrators, directors, educators, and teachers to use and apply educational theories and frameworks when delivering content to improve their students’ outcomes. This paper investigates the role and impact of some theories in education in addressing learning needs and processes for children and adult audiences. The paper primarily analyzes the impact of theory on growth and learning through the lenses of Erik Erikson’s stage models and Piaget’s theory of learning of children and adult students, respectively. The paper analyzes whether the theories would help formulate and shape the courses discussed in Modules 1 and 2. The entire paper describes how the theories and frameworks contribute to significant knowledge in the development of lesson plans for both children and adult students. The paper also applies the theoretical underpinnings in Erikson’s and Piaget’s frameworks to outline and shape the 3 learning outcomes of children and adult students. As discussed in the research essay, a brief conclusion summarizes and restates the main areas and components of improving student learning outcomes. Erikson’s Stage Model Support for Course Designed for Children’s Audience This section seeks to examine how the theoretical underpinnings in Erik Erikson’s stage model may be used in designing and enhancing the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) programs for young children between five and nineteen years, as discussed in Module 2. The module described SDG programs as essential programs for students at a younger age. Efficient learning of the SDG programs would facilitate equal advancement in health and safety outcomes within the learning environment (Kioupi & Voulvoulis, 2020). The authors believe early induction to the SDGs equips young learners with practical strategies and tools for physical, psychological, and cognitive growth. In an earlier study, Kioupi & Voulvoulis (2019) discovered that a systematic framework might explain the underlying connections between Sustainable Development Goals and students’ educational outcomes. The section seeks to investigate how Erik Erikson’s systematic frameworks in his stages of development theory. The section scrutinizes the components of Erikson’s stages of development theory to demonstrate its potential support for designing and implementing SDG programs targeting children in their respective school environments. In essence, the section primarily analyzes the components that explain individuals’ growth and developmental needs and processes between five and nineteen years. Erikson’s stage of development theory consists of eight distinct phases of development for humans, listing them from Stage 1 to Stage 8. The author enlists the eight phases of 4 development as follows: infancy, toddlerhood, pre-school, early school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood, respectively (Ojeme, 2022). The authors further reveal that during the eight stages, humans experience typical and unique psychological struggles that align with others in the same phase. Based on the author authors’ analyses, individuals in infancy, toddlerhood, pre-school, early school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood experience psychological battles of trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus identity confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair, respectively (Aziz et al., 2022). According to the authors, educators and teachers should consider their students’ age to determine the appropriate stage in Erikson’s developmental theory. Considering that case proposes the designing and implementing SDG programs on students between 5 and 19 years, contemporary teachers would focus on assessing the Stage 4 (early school years) and Stage 5 (Adolescence) phases of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory. In Stages 4 and 5 of the theory, the students would likely be facing typical psychological and social struggles regarding the concepts of industry, inferiority, and identity. Therefore, teachers and educators would have identified their students’ psychological needs and patterns, thus making informed decisions regarding the appropriate instructional methods and techniques to deploy in their classrooms. According to Sirgy (2021), aligning the instructional methods to Erikson’s stages of development theory enables teachers to devise programs and strategies that consider promoting the wellbeing of children and youth. The author insists that the primary rationale behind the efficacy and success of Erikson’s stages theory in promoting wellness in the classroom is its ability to divide psychological and psychosocial needs based on the prospective student’s age. 5 Courtesy of the theory, teachers are poised to review and categorize their students’ learning needs and processes based on their ages and developmental needs. For instance, teachers that understand Erikson’s stage theory would recognize that students in early education are experiencing a tension between the need to be industrial and inferior in the outer society. During the early-school stage of Erikson’s theory, children that subscribe to the industrial need would be motivated to enhance the SDGs due to the need to give back to society (Miller & Lang, 2018). The authors insist that children would show the need for accomplishment, competence, and productivity during this stage. According to Gross (2020), children master the environment during the industrial versus inferiority stage of Erikson’s theory. It would be appropriate for educators to emphasize the need for children to promote and implement the United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals during this stage because the children would be motivated to show their efforts in preserving the environment for sustainability. After learning and understanding the SDGs, the students would be motivated to show their productivity and responsibility in promoting sustainability. During this stage, children would be motivated to render their maximum efforts in contributing beyond the family in the enormous scope of society. Erikson’s theory would still apply in teaching and implementing SDG programs for adolescents between 12 and 19 years. During the identity versus role confusion stage of Erikson’s theory, adolescents figure out their roles, priorities, goals, and position in the world. Therefore, teachers and educators would deploy the theory to take advantage of adolescents’ need for positive participation and promotion of sustainability in the world. During this stage, many adolescent students would develop new identities and associate themselves with pro-environment 6 and sustainability activities such as advocacy, voluntary garbage collection, clean energy, and tree planting. Piaget’s Theory Support for Course Designed for Adult Audience This section intends to investigate how the components in Piaget’s learning theory may be applied in the design and implementation of the Know, Want, and Learn (KWL) chart for adult students, as discussed in Module 3 of the course readings and activities. The module described a plan for implementing the KWL chart in the classroom to help adult students and learners understand the concept. The course design would demand creating the KWL chart that would be displayed on the classroom wall through a projector. The KWL chart would comprise three sections titled “Know,” “Want,” and “Learn.” In the “Know” section, the students will share what they know about the connection between adolescence period and mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. In this section, the students would reveal whether they know of any triggers that may prompt adolescent mental health concerns. Considering that most of the consumers of the KWL charts would be adult students, they may also explain what they know about the human needs that arise with age and status, for instance, self-actualization and esteem. In the “Want” and “Learn” sections of the KWL, the students would analyze and address their current wants and reveal what they want to learn about health and wellness. The section ascertains that Piaget’s theory of adult learning aligns with and may support the implementation of KWL charts in delivering educational content to contemporary adult learners. Piaget’s theory of adult learning stresses that knowledge is not merely transmitted verbally but constructed and reconstructed by the learner through different interactions with objects (Bjorklund & Pramling Samuelsson, 2022). The theory would be optimal for adult 7 students that may need to construct and reconstruct their knowledge through interactions with objects. The KWL program would primarily use the projector on the wall to display different objects to help the adult students construct and reconstruct their knowledge. According to Piaget’s theory of adult learning, the level of intelligence changes during the growth process (Pakpahan & Saragih, 2022). According to the theory, a child’s cognitive development relies on acquiring knowledge and the mental models of the world constructed by individual children and students. In their article, Pakpahan and Saragih revealed that Jean Piaget’s theory affirmed that humans usually undergo four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages of cognitive development. Whereas the first three stages of cognitive development occur between birth and eleven years, the formal operational stage covers individuals in their adolescence through adulthood. During the fourth stage, adult learners have increased levels of logic and intuition. Considering that they can effectively construct and reconstruct knowledge, individuals in the formal operational stage can effectively use deductive reasoning and would be in a position to understand abstract ideas. During this stage, adult learners and students prefer using empirical and scientific data to solve problems and issues in their day-to-day activities (Zhan et al., 2022). Therefore, many adult students gain competencies and capabilities to form multiple potential solutions for existing problems. According to Seppala et al. (2020), Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is an effective model that can integrate epistemic knowledge and logical reasoning skills for adult learners. The authors affirm that since most adult learners are in the formal operations stage; they would be able to gain epistemic knowledge and logical reasoning skills to tackle problems in the latter stages of their lives. 8 During the formal operations stage, adults use deductive reasoning and logic when handling specific environmental information (Kallio, 2020). Adult learners utilize their deductive reasoning competencies and capabilities to construct and reconstruct knowledge based on what they learn from their environments and experiences. Educators and teachers in adult learning institutions should engage their students in numerous deductive reasoning activities to maximize and utilize their abilities during the formal operational stage of cognitive development. Adult learners prefer constructing and reconstructing the data and information they learn from their immediate and surrounding environments. The stage enables adults to solve complex decisions and issues by employing logic, critical thinking, and reasoning. The KWL program would optimize projected videos to help prospective adult learners construct and reconstruct knowledge regarding complex issues and phenomena in their lives. For instance, the video would showcase scenes that would help illustrate human growth and development. For instance, the video would show images of a child under the tutelage and care of her mother, followed by pictures of a young schoolgirl, perhaps in adolescence. The third and fourth images would show illustrations of a woman with several children around her and an older woman in her hospital bed. Teachers and educators would engage with their adult learners when observing and contextualizing the images projected on the classroom wall. The educators would expect their students to rely on their capabilities in deductive reasoning, logic, and critical thinking to form patterns and linkages between the illustrated images. During the formal operational stage, adult students should be in a position to structure new knowledge based on what they observe and experience. Considering that the proposed KWL program primarily stresses the use of observation in learning, Piaget’s theory would effectively support and enhance the program’s implementation in contemporary adult learning institutions. 9 Conclusion In conclusion, Erik Erikson’s 8-stage of development and Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theories would play critical roles in supporting the implementation of education programs for children and adult students, respectively. For instance, Stage 4 and Stage 5 of Erikson’s theory would help contemporary educators identify the underlying needs and strategies to help children and adolescents achieve their academic outcomes. Contemporary educators and teachers would utilize information from the theory to recognize and understand the needs for industry, inferiority, and identity during their early phases of life. The educators would optimize the natural psychosocial needs of children and adolescents in motivating children towards promoting the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the United Nations. Many children in this stage would be motivated to be industrious and contribute to positive environmental change. Existing literature sources suggest and imply that children would likely be highly motivated to contribute to society in the two stages of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. The theories’ two stages would be essential in guiding educators in implementing SDG programs for children and adolescent audiences in contemporary schools. On the other hand, educators and teachers in adult learning institutions would utilize Piaget’s cognitive development theories in identifying and fulfilling their adult students’ learning needs and expectations. Considering that adult learners are usually in the formal operational thinking stage; Piaget’s theory would be highly applicable in implementing the “Know” “Want” and “Learn” (KWL) program in the school environment. The three components of KWL would help cultivate students’ ability to think logically and systematically to solve underlying problems and issues. The KWL mainly stresses prompting students to observe objects, think critically, and engage in deductive thinking to understand the meaning and significance of the knowledge. Piaget’s theory 10 suggests that individuals rely on their analytical and critical thinking capabilities during the formal operative thinking stage to solve complex decisions and problems. 11 References Aziz, L., Khan, A. M., & Abbas, Z. (2022). INTERGENERATIONAL RELATIONS AMONG PASHTUN WOMEN: THE ROLE OF ELDER PASHTUN WOMEN IN PRESERVING PASHTUNWALI (PASHTUNS’CARDINAL CODE OF CONDUCT). Competitive Education Research Journal, 3(1), 289-299. Björklund, C., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (2022). Children’s Perspectives Informing Theories and Nordic Preschool Practice. In Piaget and Vygotsky in XXI century (pp. 87-107). Springer, Cham. Fauth, B., Decristan, J., Decker, A. T., Büttner, G., Hardy, I., Klieme, E., & Kunter, M. (2019). The effects of teacher competence on student outcomes in elementary science education: The mediating role of teaching quality. Teaching and Teacher Education, 86, 102882. Gross, Y. (2020). Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences: Models and Theories, 179-184. Kallio, E. K. (2020). From multiperspective to contextual integrative thinking in adulthood: Considerations on theorisation of adult thinking and its place as a component of wisdom 1. In Development of Adult Thinking (pp. 9-32). Routledge. Kioupi, V., & Voulvoulis, N. (2020). Sustainable development goals (SDGs): Assessing the contribution of higher education programmes. Sustainability, 12(17), 6701. Martin, F., Ritzhaupt, A., Kumar, S., & Budhrani, K. (2019). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Course design, assessment and evaluation, and facilitation. The Internet and Higher Education, 42, 34-43. 12 Miller, S. A., & Lang, D. (2022). Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Individual and Family Development, Health, and Well-being. Home, A. I. (2020). Analysis of The Stages of Personality Development and The Implications for The Process of Education. Journal of Guidance, 4(2), 156-166. Pakpahan, F. H., & Saragih, M. (2022). Theory Of Cognitive Development By Jean Piaget. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 55-60. Seppälä, H., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Kallio, E. K. (2020). Integrating epistemic knowledge and logical reasoning skills in adult cognitive development 1. In Development of Adult Thinking (pp. 33-46). Routledge. Sirgy, M. J. (2021). The Wellbeing of Children and Youth. In The Psychology of Quality of Life (pp. 551-580). Springer, Cham. Zhan, Z., He, W., Yi, X., & Ma, S. (2022). Effect of unplugged programming teaching aids on children’s Computational Thinking and classroom interaction: with respect to Piaget’s four stages theory. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 07356331211057143.


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