UNOFFICIALTRANSLATION
LawonCombatingCybercrimeintheKingdomofBahrainOninformationtechnologycrimesWeareHamadbinIsaAlKhalifa,KingoftheKingdomofBahrain.AfterreviewingtheConstitution,ThePenalCodepromulgatedbyLegislativeDecreeNo.15of1976anditsamendments,AndDecree-LawNo.(17)of1976regardingJuveniles,amendedbyLegislativeDecreeNo.(23)of2013,AndDecree-LawNo.4of2001ontheProhibitionandCombatingofMoneyLaunderinganditsamendments,AndDecree-LawNo.(28)of2002onelectronictransactionsanditsamendments,AndtheCodeofCriminalProcedurepromulgatedbyLegislativeDecreeNo.46of2002anditsamendments,AndDecree-LawNo.(47)of2002regardingtheorganizationofthepress,printingandpublishing,AndtheTelecommunicationsLawpromulgatedbyLegislativeDecreeNo.48of2002,LawNo.(19)of2004approvingtheaccessionoftheKingdomofBahraintotheOptionalProtocolstotheConventionontheRightsoftheChildontheinvolvementofchildreninarmedconflictandonthesaleofchildren,childprostitutionandchildpornography,LawNo.(22)fortheyear2006regardingtheprotectionofcopyrightandrelatedrightsanditsamendments,LawNo.(58)fortheyear2006regardingtheprotectionofsocietyfromterroristactsandamendedbyLegislativeDecreeNo.(20)of2013,LawNo.64of2006promulgatingtheCentralBankofBahrainLawandfinancialinstitutions,TheShuraCouncilandtheCouncilofRepresentativesapprovedthefollowinglaw,whichwehaveratifiedandissued:

IntroductorychapterArticle(1)IntheapplicationoftheprovisionsofthisLaw,thefollowingwordsandexpressionsshallhavethemeaningsassignedtoeachofthemunlessthecontextotherwiserequires.Informationtechnology:includesallformsoftechnologyusedtocreate,process,store,share,useanddisplayinformationinvariousformats.Information:Allthatcanbestored,processed,generatedandtransmittedusingITmeans,inparticular,writing,stillimages,mobile,sound,numbers,letters,symbols,signs,etc.Meansanyelectronic,magnetic,optical,electrochemical,oranyinstrumentthatintegratescommunication,computingoranyotherdevicethathastheabilitytoreceive,transmit,process,storeandretrievedataveryquickly.ITsystem:Arelatedorrelatedtoolorsetoftools,oneormoreofwhichautomaticallyprocessestheITdatainaccordancewithasoftwareprogram.ITdata:representationoffacts,facts,information,orconceptsinanappropriateformthatallowstheITsystemtoprocessthem.Program:Asetofinstructionsexpressedinwords,symbols,methodsorotherwise,ifincludedinanyofthemachine-readablemedia,iscapableofmakinganITtoolperformaparticularworkorproduceaspecificresult.ServiceProvider,anyofthefollowing:A)anypublicorprivateentityprovidingitsuserswiththepossibilityofcommunicatingthroughtheITsystem;B)anyotherentitythatprocessesorstoresthedataoftheITdeviceonbehalfoftheentityreferredtoinitem(a)ofthisparagraphortheusersofitsservices.Routedata:Informationtechnology(IT)dataproducedbytheITsystemforcommunicationthroughanITsystemthatformspartofthiscommunicationchain.Contentdata:ITdata,unlikeroutedata,issentaspartofaconnection.Damage:Define,disable,cancel,delete,destroy,alter,modify,misrepresentorblockthedataofanITdevice,ortoimpairorimpairtheITsystem.Encryption:Theprocessofconvertinginformation,systemsormeansofinformationtechnologyorcommunicationsintosymbolsthatareincomprehensibleorscatteredsothattheyaredifficulttoreadorknowwithout

beingreturnedtotheiroriginalformusingaparticularpasswordorencryptiontoolused.

ChapterIPenaltiesforITcrimesFirstbranchCrimesagainstITsystemsanddataArticle(2)ApenaltyofimprisonmentforaperiodnotexceedingoneyearandafinenotexceedingthirtythousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenaltiesshallbeimposedwithoutlegaljustificationforenteringintotheITsystemorpartofit.Iftheentryresultsindisclosureofthedatastoredinthemeansorsystemoftheinformationtechnologyorpartofitiscountedasanaggravatingcircumstance.Article(3)Itispunishablebyimprisonmentandafinenotexceedingfiftythousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenalties,whichisthemostrecentdamagetothedataofthemeansofinformationtechnologyorITsystem.Thepenaltyshallbedoubledifthecommissionofthecrimeresultsinanyofthefollowing:(A)Impedetheconductofanypublicfacilitiesorworksofpublicinterest;B)Threattopeople’slives,securityorhealth.C)harmingthesafetyofthehumanbody.D)alteration,adaptationorcancellationofmedicalexaminations,medicaldiagnosisortreatmentofaperson;Thepenaltyshallbelifeortemporaryimprisonmentifthecommissionofthecrimeresultsinthedeliberatedeathofaperson.Article(4)Withoutprejudicetoanymoreseverepenaltyinanyotherlaw,imprisonmentwithafinenotexceedingonehundredthousandDinarsoroneofthesepenaltiesshallbepunishablebywiretapping,interceptingorinterceptingwithoutlegaljustificationusingtechnicalmeans,TransmittedfromortotheITsystem,includinganyemissionsofelectromagneticwavesfromtheITsystemthatcarrysuchdata.Ifaneavesdropping,captureorobjectionresultsinadisclosureofthetransmissionorpartthereofwithoutlegaljustification,thatisnotanaggravatingcircumstance.

Article(5)Withoutprejudicetoanystricterpenaltyinanyotherlaw,apersonwhosendsthedataofaninformationtechnologydevicecontainingathreatofcausingdamagetothecarryingofanothershallbepunishedbyimprisonmentandafinenotexceedingthirtythousanddinarsoroneofthetwopenalties,providedthatheorshegiveshimoranyothergiftofanykindOrtoperformorabstainfromdoingso.Thepenaltyshallbeimprisonmentforaperiodnotexceedingfiveyearsandafinenotexceedingsixtythousanddinarsiftheoffenderreacheshisdestination.Article(6)WhoevercommitsanyoftheoffensessetforthinArticles2,3,4and5ofthisLawtoproduce,import,buyorsell,shallbepunishedbyimprisonmentforaperiodnotexceedingoneyearandafinenotexceedingonehundredthousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenalties.Orofferforsale,use,distribution,circulation,acquisition,publicationoravailability:(A)Atool-includinganyprogram-designedormodifiedprimarilyforthepurposeofcommittinganyoftheoffensesreferredto;B)anyotherpassword,accesscode,accesscodeorothersimilarinformationtechnologymedium,bywhichaccesstotheITsystemoranypartofitispossible;SectionIICrimesrelatedtothemeansofinformationtechnologyArticle(7)Shallbeliabletoimprisonmentforatermofnotmorethantenyearsfromtheintroduction,adaptation,suspension,cancellation,deletion,destruction,alteration,modification,alterationoromissionofthedataofanITdevicebelongingtoagovernmentalinterestorentitiesmentionedinArticle107ofthePenalCode,Inamannerthatwouldshowincorrectdataastrue,designedtobeusedasvaliddata,whetherdirectlyorindirectlyunderstood.Thepenaltyshallbeimprisonmentiftheoffenseiscommittedinrespectofthedataofaninformationtechnologydevicenotbelongingtooneoftheinterestsorentitiesreferredtointheprecedingparagraphifthatwouldcauseharm.Article(8)Apersonwhounlawfullyobtainspossessionofpropertyownedbythirdpartiesorreceivesanybenefitforhimselforothersortosign,cancel,destroyormodifyabondbymeansofafalsenameoranincorrectorfraudulentformshallbepunishedbyanyofthefollowing::

A)theintroduction,adaptation,disabling,cancellation,deletion,destruction,alteration,modification,alterationoromissionofITdata;B)makeanyinterferenceintheworkoftheITsystem;Theaggravatedcircumstanceprovidedforinarticles391and392ofthePenalCodeappliestothisoffense.Article(9)AnypersonwhousesencryptioninordertocommitorconcealanyofthecrimesprovidedforinthisLaworanyotherlawshallbepunishedbyimprisonmentandafinenotexceedingonehundredthousandDinarsorbyeitherofthesetwopenalties.SectionIIICrimesrelatedtocontentArticle(10)Withoutprejudicetoanymoreseverepenaltyinanyotherlaw:1)ApenaltyofnotlessthanoneyearimprisonmentandafinenotexceedingtenthousandDinarsshallbeimposedoneitherofthefollowing:A)ProducingpornographicmaterialfordistributionbytheITsystem.B)imported,sold,offeredforsale,used,traded,transferred,distributed,sent,publishedormadeavailablebytheITsystem.Thepenaltyshallbeimprisonmentforaperiodofnotlessthantwoyearsandafinenotexceedingtenthousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenaltiesifthechildpornographyisdirectedatorplacedwithinthereachofchildren.(2)Apenaltyofnotlessthanthreemonths’imprisonmentshallbeimposedandafinenotexceedingthreethousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenaltiesshallbeimposedonanyonewhocommitsanyofthefollowingacts:A)heorshehasobtainedpornographicmaterialthroughtheITsystem.B)ObtainpornographicmaterialintheITsystemorinanyothermeansofinformationtechnology.Thepenaltyshallbeimprisonmentforaperiodofnotlessthansixmonthsandafineofnotlessthanthreethousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenaltiesifthechildpornographyisdirectedatorplacedattheirdisposal.3.Intheapplicationoftheprovisionsofthisarticle,theterm”childpornography”meansthedefinitionofchildpornographyintheOptionalProtocoltotheConventionontheRightsoftheChildonthesaleofchildren,childprostitutionandchildpornography.

ChapterIIProceduresforITcrimesArticle(11)TheprovisionsofthisChaptershallapplyto:A)ThecrimesstipulatedinChapterIofthisLaw.(B)OffensesprovidedforinanyotherlawifcommittedusingtheITsystem.C)Collectionofevidenceinelectronicformrelatingtoanycrime.Article(12)(1)ThePublicProsecutionmayorderanypersontoexpeditiouslymaintaintheintegrityofcertaindataforthemeansofinformationtechnology,includingtheroutedatastoredwithintheITsystem,initspossessionorcontrolandtomaintaintheintegrityofsuchdatawheneveritdeemsnecessarytodemonstratethetruthInanycrimeandhaveevidencetobelievethatsuchdataisliabletobelostoraltered.2.ThePublicProsecutionmayorderthepersonreferredtoinparagraph1ofthisarticletomaintainandmaintainthedataforaperiodnotexceedingninetydaysandtheGrandCriminalCourtintheChamberofCounselmayauthorizethePublicProsecution,attherequestofjustification,Theperiodreferredtobythreedays,extendingthisperiodforaperiodorconsecutiveperiodsnotexceedingatotalofninetydays.Wherepossible,thecourtshallhearthestatementsofthepersonreferredto.(3)ThePublicProsecutionmayorderthepersonreferredtoinparagraph(1)ofthisarticletomaintaintheconfidentialityoftheorderissuedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofanyofparagraphs(1)and(2)ofthisArticleforaperiodnotexceedingninetydays,renewableforaperiodorperiodsShallnotexceedninetydaysintotalandtheprocedureprovidedforinparagraph(2)referredtoabove.Article(13)(1)ThePublicProsecutionmayorderanypersonpossessingorunderitscontrolcertaindatatotransmitinformationpromptly,includingdatastoredwithinaninformationtechnologysystemoranymeansofinformationtechnology.(2)ThePublicProsecutionmayorderanyserviceprovidertoprovideanyinformationinitspossessionorcontrolofanysubscriberoruserthereof,whetherthisinformationisintheformofanIToranyotherformanddoesnotincludetrafficandcontentdata.

AllthiswhenthePublicProsecutionseestheneedforthistoshowthetruthinthecrime.Article(14)Thejudgeofthelowercourtmay,attherequestofthePublicProsecution,afterhavingexaminedthepapers,orderthefollowing:(A)Thetransmissionofcrime-relatedtrafficdatawhetherthetransmissionshavebeentransmittedthroughoneormoreserviceprovidersisexpeditiouslymaintained;B)thedisclosureofsufficienttrafficdatatoenablethePublicProsecutiontodeterminetheserviceproviderandthepaththroughwhichsuchdataweretransmitted,aslongasitcontributestothetruthinacrimepunishableunderthisActoranyotherlaw;Inthiscase,thejudgeshallissueanorder.Article(15)1)ThePublicProsecutionmayissueaninjunctiontoenterandinspectthefollowing:(A)Theinformationtechnologysystemrelatedtothecrimeoranypartthereofandanydataoftheinformationtechnologystoredtherein;B)anymeansofstoringthedataofaninformationtechnologydeviceinwhichcrime-relateddatamaybestored.(2)If,intheexecutionoftheorderreferredtoinparagraph1(a)ofthisarticle,thePublicProsecutionhasstrongindicationsthatthecrime-relateddataisstoredinanotherorpartoftheITsystemandthatsuchdatacouldbeaccessedThroughtheITsystemorthroughwhichitislegitimatelyavailable,thePublicProsecutionmayissueaninjunctiontoextendaccessandinspectiontotheothersystem.Article(16)(1)ThePublicProsecutionAuthorityshallhavetheauthoritytocontrolandpreservethedataofthemeansofinformationtechnologyaccessedpursuanttotheprovisionsofArticle(15)ofthislaw,includingthefollowing:A)thecontrolandreservationoftheITsystem,oranypartthereof,oranyoftheITdatastoragemedia;B)Reproducingtheinformationtechnologydataandmaintainingthecopy.C)MaintaintheintegrityofthedataoftheITmedium.

D)UploadingthedataoftheITsystemfromtheITsystemthathasbeenaccessedormadeunavailable.2.Thepowerofcontrolandreservationreferredtoinparagraph(1)ofthisarticleshallnotincludewhattheaccusedhasplacedatthedisposalofthedefenderortheconsultanttoperformthetaskentrustedtothemorthecorrespondencebetweentheminthecase.Article(17)Thejudgeofthelowercourtshall,attherequestofthePublicProsecution,anduponexaminationofthepapers,orderanypersonwhoiscompetentorfamiliarwiththefunctioningoftheITsystemandthemeasuresappliedtoprotectthedatastoredinthissystembyprovidingitwithreasonableinformationtoenableittocarryouttheprescribedproceduresInArticles(15)and(16)ofthisLaw.Thejudgeassesses,ifnecessary,thefeesofthecommissioner.Article(18)(1)Subjecttotheprovisionsofsection(b)ofArticle(14)ofthisLaw,thePublicProsecutionmay,afterobtainingthepermissionofthelowercourtjudge:A)Assignanypersoncompetenttocollectandrecordtrafficdataandcontentdata,oranyofthem,relatingtospecificcommunicationstransmittedbytheITsystem,whensuchcommunicationsoccur.B)Assignanyserviceprovidertocarryouttheactsreferredtoinitem(a)ortoprovidethenecessaryassistancetothosecommissionedbythePublicProsecution.C)AssignanypersoncompetenttoblockthedataofthecontentofanyinformationtechnologydeviceoranypartthereofbywhichanyoftheITcrimeswerecommitted.Inallcases,thepermitshallbeforaperiodnotexceedingthirtydaysrenewableforanotherperiodorsimilarperiods.(2)Personsassignedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofparagraph(1)ofthisArticleshallnotbesubjectedtounduedisclosureinthelawtoanyotherpersonofthiscommissionoranyrelevantinformationoruseinanymanner.Article(19)(1)Apersonwhohasnotcompliedwithanorderororderissuedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofanyofthefollowingparagraphsshallbepunishedbyimprisonmentforaperiodnotexceedingtwoyearsandbyafinenotexceedingonehundredthousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenalties.(1)or(2)ofArticle(12),oranyofArticles(13)or(14),orparagraph(1)ofArticle(18)ofthisLaw.

2)Apenaltyofimprisonmentforaperiodnotexceedingoneyearandafinenotexceedingthreethousanddinarsoroneofthesetwopenaltiesshallbeimposedonanyonewhocontravenes:(A)Theorderreferredtoinparagraph(3)ofArticle(12)ofthisLaw.B)Theprovisionofparagraph(2)ofArticle(18)ofthislaw.Thepenaltyshallbeimprisonmentforatermnotexceedingfiveyearsiftheoffenderisapublicofficialorapublicserviceofficer.ChapterIIIMiscellaneousprovisionsArticle(20)TheinitiationoftheoffensesprovidedforinthisLawshallbepunishablebyhalfoftheprescribedpenaltyforthefulloffense.Article(21)Withoutprejudicetothecriminalliabilityofthenaturalperson,thelegalpersonshallbeliabletothefineprescribedfortheoffenseifanyoftheoffensesprovidedforinthislawwerecommittedinhisnameorforhisaccountorforhisbenefit.Thiswastheresultoftheapprovalorconcealmentorgrossnegligenceofanymemberoftheboardofdirectors,Anyotherofficialauthorizedbysuchlegalperson.Intheeventofareturn,thecourtmaydecidetodissolvethelegalpersonorclosetheheadquartersinwhichthecrimeortheplaceinwhichtheoffensewascommittedhasbeenclosedforafinalperiodorfortheperiodestimatedbythecourt.Article(22)(1)ExceptasprovidedinChapterTwoofthisLaw,theprovisionsoftheCodeofCriminalProcedureshallapplytotheoffensesprovidedforinthisLaw,totheextentpermittedbythenatureandthemeansofstoringthedata.2.IntheapplicationoftheprovisionsofthisAct,themeaningoftheword”thing”or”objects”intheCodeofCriminalProcedureincludestheterm”informationtechnologysystem”or”anypartthereof”,”informationtechnologymedium”and”Informationtechnology”containedinthislaw.Themeaningofthewords”papers”,”documents”,”editors”,”letters”,”letters”and”publications”intheCodeofCriminalProceduremeans”informationtechnologymeans”.

Article(23)Exceptasprovidedforinthislaw,whoevercommitsanoffensestipulatedinanyotherlawbymeansofasystemoranytechnicalmeansofinformationshallbepunishedbytheprescribedpenaltyforthatcrime.Article(24)ThePrimeMinisterandtheMinisters,eachwithinhisownjurisdiction,shallimplementtheprovisionsofthisLawandshallcomeintoforceonemonthafterthedateofitspublicationintheOfficialGazette.KingoftheKingdomofBahrainHamadbinIsaAlKhalifaIssuedatRiffaPalace:Date:6Dhual-Hijjah1435eCorrespondingto:30September2014

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