College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Critical Thinking Assignment 1: Module-2 & 3 Deadline: End of Week 3 Course Name: Academic Writing and Student’s Name: Abdulmohsen Almutib Research Skills Course Code: RES500 Student’s ID Number:G220000222 Term: CRN: 13590 Academic Year: 2022 For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low 60 marks Regulations: ✓ This assignment is an individual assignment. ✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. ✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate. 1 ✓ Submit your findings in a 3-4 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox. ✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the TurnItIn Originality Check – Student Guide for stepby-step instructions. An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades: Type of Assignment Posting Date Due date Marks Grace period* Critical thinking Week 2 End of Week 3 60 3 days * Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission Module 2 & 3 Assignment-I: Topic selection & research questions (draft) (60 points) A topic of research should be chosen. It can be either a research paper or a startup concept. Once the topic is finalized, the draft research questions (based on which objectives of the study will be formed) must be developed (not more than three). Each selection must be discussed in detail with 2 logic and rationale. Reasons for the topic should be discussed first followed by discussion on selection of each of the research questions. Answers Surviving International Competition by Saudi Firms International business has, in the last two decades taken a different shape given the prevalent consistent changes in conducting business, which is parallel to the changing consumer needs and market demands. Amid the growth in the global business economy, the Saudi economy is largely dependent on oil and petrochemicals despite being a notable contributor to the global economy’s growth and development. The international business platform has a collection of distinct market players, which makes competition to be overly stiff for the participants (Chabowski & Mena, 2017). Nonetheless, there is an ever-surging demand for products and services across the industries, a factor that contributes to the economic growth of particular jurisdictions over others. As reported by Chabowski & Mena (2017), such differences are enhanced by factors, such as the respective economies’ level of growth, export, and competitive advantage. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) market suffered significant drawbacks from the renowned global economic meltdown that occurred between 2008 and 2009. However, the economy depicted a fast recuperation across all the sectors, which pointed towards improved performance of the economy’s non-oil sector during and after the economic recession. This notwithstanding, the main driver of economic development in the middle-east countries is fuel. In KSA alone, fuel contributes to approximately 36% of the overall gross domestic product (GDP) (Alkhathlan, 2013). The reported trend depicting the high rate of growth of the country’s oil industry is negatively impacted by lagging behind the non-oil segments according to the 3 stipulated international standards. Thus, the Saudi firms surfacing in the international market are poised to face notable challenges given that the global market already is experiencing dramatic expansions, in addition to the threat of the already established firms within the respective industries (Robertson et al., 2015). To date, there lack significant research studies that explore the effect of international business on Saudi-based companies. The objective of this research is to evaluate the factors that directly, or indirectly influence the operations of Saudi companies in the international market. Research Questions The primary aim of this work is to evaluate how Saudi-based firms can, or are able to survive competition in the present-day market domain. The specific research questions include; 1. Determining the impact of international business and its distinct dimensions in the contemporary highly competitive market domain. 2. Determining the challenges faced by businesses operating in KSA while still engaging in the international market. 3. Analyzing the business factors (internal and external) that present the identified challenges for entities operating in the KSA. Research Questions Rationale • Determining the impact of international business and its distinct dimensions in the contemporary highly competitive market domain This research question will seek to comprehensively evaluate the results of firms engaging in international business for medium to large-sized organizations. As noted by Blazquez et al. 2021), the performance of Saudi-based firms in the international domain remains poor, which is due to their over-reliance on fuel, and the underdevelopment of the other sectors. It is also 4 defined by the leveraged strategies by the market participants, and the subsequently available market demand. The researcher will seek to determine how participating in the international market by the Saudi-based firms affected the consumer needs, preferences, and perceptions about particular products and services. The researcher will provide an overview of how the rising population and the consumer’s economic conditions in KSA, and across the globe affect international business. This will help determine the impact of international business on the respective, and overall KSA-based firms. • Determining the challenges faced by businesses operating in KSA while still engaging in the international market. The past years have been characterized by constantly changing economic dynamos, a trend that underscores the need for constantly changing and updating strategies and processes, for optimal market performance. This postulates the existence of distinct challenges that constantly impede the effective functioning of KSA-based firms in the international market (Robertson et al., 2015). The researcher will examine the range of challenges, such as ease of identifying the needs and preferences of the end-users, and the implications of ineffective and inefficient research and development (R&D) systems and processes. It is noteworthy that a majority of the most successful organizations in the international arena have standardized systems that enhance seamless and timely identification, and mitigation of such challenges given that they could negatively affect performance and returns. • Analyzing the business factors (internal and external) that present the identified challenges for entities operating in the KSA. There is a myriad of internal and external corporate elements that collectively contributes to their ineffective performance at the international level. The research underscores the 5 significance is important for the stakeholders to adequately identify them for mitigation. Specifically, the researcher seeks to evaluate the international business needs and standards from whose non-adherence results in the challenges that impede effective operationalization and functionality at the international level. 6 References Alkhathlan, K. (2013). Contribution of oil in economic growth of Saudi Arabia. Applied Economics Letters, 20(4), 343-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2012.703310 Blazquez, J., Galeotti, M., Manzano, B., Pierru, A., & Pradhan, S. (2021). Effects of Saudi Arabia’s economic reforms: Insights from a DSGE model. Economic Modelling, 95, 145169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2020.12.004 Chabowski, B., & Mena, J. (2017). A Review of Global Competitiveness Research: Past Advances and Future Directions. Journal Of International Marketing, 25(4), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.16.0053 Robertson, C., Yaghmour, M., & Kawther, E. (2015). Perceptions of international strategic moves: Saudi Arabia versus the United States. South African Journal Of Business Management, 46(2), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v46i2.91 7 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 1 College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Critical Thinking Assignment 1: Module-2 & 3 Deadline: End of Week 3 Course Name: Academic Writing and Student’s Name: Abdulmohsen Almutib Research Skills Course Code: RES500 Student’s ID Number:G220000222 Term: CRN: Academic Year: For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low 60 marks Regulations: ✓ This assignment is an individual assignment. ✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. ✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate. 1 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 2 ✓ Submit your findings in a 3-4 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox. ✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the TurnItIn Originality Check – Student Guide for stepby-step instructions. An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades: Type of Assignment Posting Date Due date Marks Grace period* Critical thinking Week 2 End of Week 3 60 3 days * Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission Module 2 & 3 Assignment-I: Topic selection & research questions (draft) (60 points) A topic of research should be chosen. It can be either a research paper or a startup concept. Once the topic is finalized, the draft research questions (based on which objectives of the study will be formed) must be developed (not more than three). Each selection must be discussed in detail with 2 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 3 logic and rationale. Reasons for the topic should be discussed first followed by discussion on selection of each of the research questions. Answers Surviving International Competition by Saudi Firms In the last two decades, international business has taken a different shape given the prevalent consistent changes in conducting business, which is parallel to the changing consumer needs and market demands. Amid the growth in the global business economy, the Saudi economy is mainly dependent on oil and petrochemicals despite being a notable contributor to the global economy’s growth and development. The international business platform has a collection of distinct market players, making competition overly stiff for the participants (Chabowski & Mena, 2017). Nonetheless, there is an ever-surging demand for products and services across the industries, a factor that contributes to the economic growth of particular jurisdictions over others. As reported by Chabowski & Mena (2017), such differences are enhanced by factors such as the respective economies’ level of growth, export, and competitive advantage. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) market suffered significant drawbacks from the global economic meltdown between 2008 and 2009. However, the economy depicted a fast recuperation across all the sectors, which pointed towards improved performance of the economy’s non-oil industry during and after the economic recession. This notwithstanding, the main driver of economic development in the middle east countries is fuel. In KSA alone, fuel contributes to approximately 36% of the overall gross domestic product (GDP) (Alkhathlan, 2013). The reported trend depicting the high growth rate of the country’s oil industry is negatively impacted by lagging the non-oil segments according to the stipulated international 3 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 4 standards. Thus, the Saudi firms surfacing in the international market are poised to face notable challenges, given that the global market is already experiencing dramatic expansions, in addition to the threat of the already established firms within the respective industries (Robertson et al., 2015). To date, there is a lack of significant research studies that explore the effect of international business on Saudi-based companies. This research aims to evaluate the factors that directly or indirectly influence the operations of Saudi companies in the global market. Research Questions The primary aim of this work is to evaluate how Saudi-based firms can survive competition in the present-day market domain. The specific research questions include; 1. Determining the impact of international business and its distinct dimensions in the contemporary, highly competitive market domain. 2. Determining the challenges of businesses operating in KSA while still engaging in the international market. 3. Analyzing the business factors (internal and external) that present the identified challenges for entities operating in the KSA. Research Questions Rationale • Determining the impact of international business and its distinct dimensions in the contemporary, highly competitive market domain This research question will seek to comprehensively evaluate the results of firms engaging in international business for medium to large-sized organizations. As noted by Blazquez et al. 2021), the performance of Saudi-based firms in the global domain remains poor due to their over-reliance on fuel and the underdevelopment of the other sectors. It is also defined by the market participants’ leveraged strategies and the subsequently available market demand. The 4 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 5 researcher will determine how the Saudi-based firms’ participation in the international market affected consumer needs, preferences, and perceptions about particular products and services. The researcher will provide an overview of how the rising population and the consumer’s economic conditions in KSA, and across the globe affect international business. This will help determine the impact of international trade on the respective and overall KSA-based firms. • Determining the challenges of businesses operating in KSA while still engaging in the international market. The past years have been characterized by constantly changing economic dynamos, a trend that underscores the need for continually evolving and updating strategies and processes for optimal market performance. This postulates the existence of distinct challenges that constantly impede the effective functioning of KSA-based firms in the international market (Robertson et al., 2015). The researcher will examine the range of challenges, such as ease of identifying the needs and preferences of the end-users and the implications of ineffective and inefficient research and development (R&D) systems and processes. It is noteworthy that most of the most successful organizations in the international arena have standardized systems that enhance seamless and timely identification and mitigation of such challenges, given that they could negatively affect performance and returns. • Analyzing the business factors (internal and external) that present the identified challenges for entities operating in the KSA. A myriad of internal and external corporate elements collectively contribute to their ineffective performance at the international level. The research underscores the significance is essential for the stakeholders to identify them for mitigation adequately. Specifically, the researcher seeks to evaluate the global business needs and standards from whose non-adherence 5 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 6 results in the challenges that impede effective operationalization and functionality at the international level. Literature Review Determining the impact of international business and its distinct dimensions in the contemporary, highly competitive market domain As noted by Blazquez et al. 2021), the performance of Saudi-based firms in the international environment remains poor due to their over-reliance on fuel and the underdevelopment of the other sectors. In the same vein, Ahmed et al. (2015) found out that although the non-oil sector had started to show immense growth before 2010, it decelerated there afterward due to the shooting of the retail and wholesale businesses in the non-oil sector and a low rate of growth in other sectors of the economy such as communication, transport, construction, and manufacturing. The findings that Ahmed et al. (2015) found depicts that economic diversification has remained a significant problem in Saudi Arabia, making the entire Saudi-based firms perform poorly in international business. Furthermore, Ahmed et al. (2015) found that the level of exports from Saudi Arabia is relatively low compared to other exports from other countries. Blazquez et al. (2021) also noted that the performance of Saudi-based firms is defined by the market participants’ leveraged strategies and the subsequently available market demand. In line with this argument, Blazquet et al. (2021) found that various government strategies and their impact on households and firms determine the performance of Saudi-based firms. Essentially, deploying a VAT can have short-term advantages but, in the long run, determine the market demand for the available products relative to substitute products from other firms. Similarly, Zygiaris et al. (2022) found that the level of service quality is crucial in determining the level of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is essential in determining a firm’s performance (Chang et al., 6 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 7 2017; Cao et al., 2018). However, the presence of global market providers in the economy of Saudi Arabia has offered opportunities for substitute products by other competitors. This, in return, has affected the performance of Saudi firms coupled with the VAT that has crippled consumers’ spending rate. Determining the challenges of businesses operating in KSA while still engaging in the international market. As Robertson et al. (2015) noted, the past years have been characterized by constantly changing economic dynamos. This trend underscores the need for continually evolving and updating strategies and processes for optimal market performance. This postulates the existence of distinct challenges that constantly impede the effective functioning of KSA-based firms in the international market. Further, Robertson et al. (2015) identified a wide array of problems that can affect the performance of KSA-based firms. One of the challenges stems from the religious codes that make the operations of expatriates more difficult to run Saudi-based firms. Essentially, the difference in moral orientations between Saudi Arabia and expatriates’ moral and social directions makes it hard for Saudi-based firms to run effectively and efficiently. Another challenge that makes Saudi-based firms record a poor performance on the international front is due to delays in projects. Essentially, this problem has been found by different authors such as Alhammadi et al. (2015) and Alfaadel et al. (2012). Conjunctively, these authors have a common consensus that different sectors of the Saudi Arabian economy struggle with the problem of delays. According to these researchers, delays result in poor performance of the sectors in the international domain. For instance, Alhammadi et al. (2015) identified that delays in project implementation in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia have led to many scholars going abroad for their master’s and post-graduate degree programs. 7 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 8 Similarly, Alfaadel et al. (2012) found out that most of the construction industries in Saudi Arabia experience delays due to a lack of experienced personnel to run companies. Besides, failing to invest more in research and development activities has affected Saudi-based firms. Remarkably, this finding is supported by the research conducted by Al-Tamimi and Elhaj (2016). They found out that the lack of knowledge by the Saudi workforce limits the capabilities of Saudi-based firms to perform better at the international level. However, this should not be surprising because Saudi Arabia is a developing country. Lack of knowledge about markets abroad and market regulations might hurt Saudi-based firms. Analyzing the business factors (internal and external) that present the identified challenges for entities operating in the KSA. A myriad of internal and external corporate elements collectively contribute to their ineffective performance at the international level. According to Mamai and Yinghua (2016), managing risks or challenges is a fundamental concept in the business environment because it provides a basis for success. As mentioned earlier, the attitudes of Saudi consumers are influenced by their morals and values, and these mainly steps from their religious traditions. In a thesis submitted by Algumzi (2017), the researcher attempted to explain the impact of the Islamic religion on business ethics. Regarding Algumzi (2017), the Islamic religion has made it difficult for Saudi-based organizations to perform well internationally. In his views, this is due to the strictness of values and morals that religion abides by. A study by Alalmai et al. (2020) further confirms the above findings by stating that religion is a vital factor or element that can impede or facilitate an organization’s operation at the international level. Further study by Al-Awadhi and Dempsey (2017) claims that religion can affect the behavior of individuals. While using the agency cost theory, Alalmai et al. (2020) found out that most 8 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS organizations in Saudi Arabia face the issue of conflict of interests among holders of debt security, shareholders, and managers. While analyzing Saudi-based firms, Jamel et al. (2021) found that conflicting interests between shareholders and managers cause alarm for organizations’ poor performance. Additionally, the lack of knowledge about market regulations has been due to inefficient and ineffective investment in research and development programs. Research and development, especially on employee training, is a crucial aspect of business management programs since it influences organizational performance. 9 9 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 10 References Alalmai, S., Al-Awadhi, A. M., Hassan, M. K., & Turunen-Red, A. (2020). The influence of religion on the determinants of capital structure: the case of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research. Alfaadel, F., Alawairdhi, M., & Al-Zyoud, M. (2012, May). Success and failure of IT projects: a study in Saudi Arabia. In Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS international conference on Applied Computer and Applied Computational Science (pp. 77-82). Algumzi, A. (2017). The impact of Islamic culture on business ethics: Saudi Arabia and the practice of Wasta. Lancaster University (United Kingdom). Alhammadi, Y., Kashiwagi, D., Kashiwagi, J., & Sullivan, K. (2015). Development of a New Construction Research Model for Saudi Arabia. Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value, 7(1), 42-42. Alkhathlan, K. (2013). Contribution of oil in economic growth of Saudi Arabia. Applied Economics Letters, 20(4), 343-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2012.703310 Al-Tamimi, E., & Elhaj, M. R. (2016). Factors affecting successful foreign business extension by Saudi firms. In Proceedings Papers. In Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference. Blazquez, J., Galeotti, M., Manzano, B., Pierru, A., & Pradhan, S. (2021). Effects of Saudi Arabia’s economic reforms: Insights from a DSGE model. Economic Modelling, 95, 145169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2020.12.004 10 SURVIVING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION BY SAUDI FIRMS 11 Cao, Y., Ajjan, H., & Hong, P. (2018). Post-purchase shipping and customer service experiences in online shopping and their impact on customer satisfaction: An empirical study with comparison. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics. Chabowski, B., & Mena, J. (2017). A Review of Global Competitiveness Research: Past Advances and Future Directions. Journal Of International Marketing, 25(4), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.16.0053 Chang, M., Jang, H. B., Li, Y. M., & Kim, D. (2017). The relationship between the efficiency, service quality and customer satisfaction for state-owned commercial banks in China. Sustainability, 9(12), 2163. Jamel, L., Albogami, H. E., Abdulaal, M. A., & Aljohani, N. A. (2021). Do agency conflicts between managers and shareholders affect corporate risk management and financial performance of Saudi firms?. Journal of Investment Compliance, 22(1), 58-73. Mamai, M., & Yinghua, S. (2017). Managing Risks through Mitigation Strategies: Evidence from Cameroonian Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management, 12(1), 219-227. Robertson, C., Yaghmour, M., & Kawther, E. (2015). Perceptions of international strategic moves: Saudi Arabia versus the United States. South African Journal Of Business Management, 46(2), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v46i2.91 Zygiaris, S., Hameed, Z., Alsubaie, A., & Rehman, U. (2022). Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Pandemic World: A Study of Saudi Auto Care Industry. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 842141-842141. 11 ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬ ‫وزارة التعليم‬ ‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Critical Thinking Assignment 3: Module-5 & 6 Deadline: End of Week 6 Course Name: Academic Writing and Student’s Name: Abdulmohsen Almutib Research Skills Course Code: RES-500 Student’s ID Number: G220000222 Semester: 1st CRN: 13590 Academic Year: 1443/1444 H, 1st Term For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: / Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Regulations: ✓ This assignment is an individual assignment. ✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. ✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate. 2 ✓ Submit your findings in a 3–4-page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox. ✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check – Student Guide for step-by-step instructions. An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades: Type of Assignment Posting Date Due date Marks Critical thinking Week 5 End of Week 6 60 Grace period* 3 days * Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission Module 5 & 6 Assignment-III: Finalization of title and research questions (60 points) After going through the past literature, you will develop a clear idea of the gap in area of your selected topic. Explore this gap and find a suitable title for your chosen research topic. Draft research questions can be tweaked or improved with the gained knowledge from literature review. The title and 3 the research questions can be finalized with strong logic provided by supportive literature. Answers Impact of Incorporating Strategic Thoughts and Actions by Saudi Firms on Promoting International Trade There is a constantly growing need for businesses in the modern-day era to carefully consider and develop effective competitive strategies that will increase their chances of survival in the highly volatile market environment. Therefore, developing such strategies should remain the top priority for organizational management teams (Robertson et al., 2015). Nonetheless, the perceptions of strategic moves tend to vary based on distinct factors, such as economic conditions and cultural differences. Saudi firms should consider strategic orientation preferences, particularly in an environment involving foreign market opportunities. Nonetheless, it is essential to garner an in-depth understanding of Saudi firms’ perceptions of international strategic moves. There is a relative shortage of sufficient studies that strive to investigate the actual impact of leveraging competitive strategies to succeed in the international market (Al-Rdaydeh et al., 2018). This research aims to determine the essence of informed decision-making by Saudi firms regarding international corporate investments. Research Questions The aim of developing the research questions below is to investigate the potential strategic best practices that Saudi firms can implement to bolster international trade. They include; 4 1. Investigating whether Saudi Arabian business managers conferred different orientation investment option puts more emphasis on the economic system rather than the culture of the target foreign market. 2. Whether the decision to invest in firms that pursue particular strategic orientations is informed by the perceptions of the respective strategy regardless of cultural differences across countries. 3. Determining Saudi Arabian managers’ actual perceptions of strategic investment decisions, including those that contain cultural distances. Research Question Rationale • Investigating whether Saudi Arabian business managers conferred different orientation investment option puts more emphasis on the economic system rather than the culture of the target foreign market. The research question seeks to evaluate the factors that trigger the decision-making process of Saudi-based managers on whether to emphasize more on economic systems compared to the culture of the respective international countries. Following an in-depth exploration of the issue, it emerges that most Saudi-based organizations focus more on their selected international companies existing economic systems than the inherent culture. Thus, the researcher will seek to understand and evaluate the specific factors that could be contributing to this prevalent trend and subsequently inform appropriate decision-making regarding how Saudi firms promote international trade. This notwithstanding, it is essential to note that this applies to firms with different orientation investment options to choose from (Robertson et al., 2015). The intent is to understand the driving factors of the evidenced decision-making processes associated with them. 5 • Determining whether the decision to invest in firms that pursue particular strategic orientations is informed by the perceptions of the respective strategy regardless of cultural differences. The prevalent corporate environment posits an ongoing trend of firms continuously striving to understand strategic moves in an economy that they can leverage. The renowned implication of this is the firms getting acquainted with the existing preferred strategies and nations that are used more by the rivals as they positively impact value-toopportunity assessments (Elimam, 2017). The research seeks to investigate the exact impact of the Saudi firms incorporating local perception of the strategies, the prevalent economic system, and cultural issues on making appropriate decisions on matters of international investment. The research is important given that viable strategic frameworks are largely country-specific, which points out their potential failure if such is not considered. Therefore, it will improve the immediate understanding and perception of the Saudi firms on internationalization and respective investment decisions and the potential impact they have in informing the firm’s international investment decisions. • Determining Saudi Arabian managers’ actual perceptions of strategic investment decisions, including those that contain cultural distances. Most often, managers working with multinational organizations often face notable challenges that, in turn, impede their ability to make strategic investment decisions effectively. A wealth of research shows shortages in information about how managers, especially those from non-OECD countries, perceive strategic orientations depicting shortages in crucial information directly affecting decision-making on international investments (Robertson et al., 2015). Therefore, the researcher seeks to investigate Saudi- 6 based managers’ perceptions of strategic investment decisions. This will help better understand the criteria that guide such and other Saudi-based firms’ decision-making in their consolidated efforts to promote international trade (Elimam, 2017). The research will be directed at better understanding the potential and actual challenges that affect and determine the adaptation strategies of firms relative to the competition in the international market domain. Besides, the researcher will evaluate the essence of ethics, standards, and community interactions in making informed decisions. 7 References Al-Rdaydeh, M., Almansour, A., & Al-Omar, M. (2018). Moderating effect of competitive strategies on the relation between financial leverage and firm performance: evidence from Jordan. Business And Economic Horizons, 14(3), 626-641. https://doi.org/10.15208/beh.2018.44 Elimam, H. (2017). Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia: A Review. International Journal Of Economics And Finance, 9(7), 222. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijef.v9n7p222 Robertson, C., Yaghmour, M., & Kawther, E. (2015). Perceptions of international strategic moves: Saudi Arabia versus the United States. South African Journal Of Business Management, 46(2), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v46i2.91 ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬ ‫وزارة التعليم‬ ‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Critical Thinking Assignment 4: Module-9 & 10 Deadline: End of Week 10 Course Name: Academic Writing and Student’s Name: Research Skills Course Code: RES-500 Student’s ID Number: Semester: 1st CRN: Academic Year: 1443/1444 H, 1st Term For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: / Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Regulations: ✓ This assignment is an individual assignment. ✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. ✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate. ✓ Submit your findings in a 3–4-page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox. ✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check – Student Guide for step-by-step instructions. An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades: Type of Assignment Posting Date Due date Marks Critical thinking Week 9 End of Week 10 60 Grace period* 3 days * Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission Module 9 & 10 Assignment-IV: Provisional Questions for data collection (Questionnaire) (60 points) By this time, you will have a good knowledge of data collection techniques and the measurement questions and instruments. Develop a good questionnaire based on the chapters from the textbook (module 5-10). The questionnaire must have all types of questions you studied in the chapters, e.g., Dichotomous (Yes/ No), Multichotomous (MCQ), Check List, Ranking & Rating Scale as well as Open-ended questions. Minimum 20 questions should be included in the questionnaire (mentioning the type of question). The logical sequence must be maintained, and the ideal format and basic guidelines must be adhered. Answers

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