Copyright 2010. Pfeiffer. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. BEST PRACTICES IN TALENT MANAGEMENT How the World’s Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent MARSHALL GOLDSMITH AND LOUIS CARTER, EDITORS EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY AN: 305508 ; Marshall Goldsmith, Louis Carter, The Best Practice Institute.; Best Practices in Talent Management : How the World’s Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent Account: strayer.main.eds-live Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 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To contact Pfeiffer directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-274-4434, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3985, or fax 317-572-4002, or visit Pfeiffer also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Best practices in talent management: how the world’s leading corporations manage, develop, and retain top talent / Marshall Goldsmith and Louis Carter, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-49961-0 (cloth) 1. Executives—Training of. 2. Executive ability. 3. Leadership. 4. Employee retention. I. Goldsmith, Marshall. II. Carter, Louis. HD30.4.B483 2010 658.4’07124—dc22 2009036634 Acquiring Editor: Matthew Davis Production Editor: Dawn Kilgore Editorial Assistant: Lindsay Morton Director of Development: Kathleen Dolan Davies Editor: Rebecca Taff Manufacturing Supervisor: Becky Morgan Printed in the United States of America Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to For Crissy EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to CONTENTS Introduction, by Louis Carter xiii Acknowledgments xxvii How to Use This Book xxix CHAPTER ONE: AVON PRODUCTS, INC., BY MARC EFFRON Introduction A Success-Driven Challenge The Turnaround The Talent Challenge Execute on the “What,” Differentiate with “How” From Opaque to Transparent From Complex to Simple From Egalitarian to Differentiated From Episodic to Disciplined From Emotional to Factual From Meaningless to Consequential The Results of a Talent Turnaround Measuring the Talent Turnaround’s Success 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 CHAPTER TWO: BANK OF AMERICA, BY BRIAN FISHEL AND JAY CONGER Introduction Leadership Development Activities for Executive Leaders Lessons for Designing On-Boarding for Executive Leaders 17 18 21 32 CHAPTER THREE: CORNING INCORPORATED, BY RICHARD A. O’LEARY, GARY JUSELA, AND HEATH N. TOPPER Introduction 36 37 vii EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to viii Contents The Business Case for the Accelerated Development of Corning Program Managers 40 The Design Flow: Two Weeks of Experiential Learning with an Interim Period of Coaching and Mentoring 48 Outcomes and Next Steps for Growing the Talent Pipeline of Program Leaders 56 Next Steps 57 CHAPTER FOUR: CUSTOMER AND ENTERPRISE SERVICES (CES) DIVISION, BY MICHAEL SCHECTER, JOHN PARKER, AND JUDY ZAUCHA Business Background and Challenges The Roots of the CES Transformation: Leadership and Process Diagnosing and Designing the Whole System Transformation: The Leadership Alignment Event Implementing the Whole System Transformation: The Waves Supporting and Reinforcing the Whole System Transformation Evaluation of the CES Whole System Transformation CHAPTER FIVE: ECOLAB, INC., BY ROBERT C. BARNETT, MICHAEL L. MEYER, SARAH J. MURPHY, AND SUSAN M. METCALF Introduction Company Background Ecolab’s 2002–2007 Strategic Plan Culture Is Critical Ecolab’s Talent Management Philosophy The Ecolab Talent Pipeline The Importance of Individual Development Introducing the Talent Pipeline Model at Ecolab Supporting Successful Implementation Keeping the Pipeline Full Results Conclusion EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 60 61 62 68 71 77 82 84 85 85 85 87 88 90 90 95 95 98 100 101 Contents ix CHAPTER SIX: GE MONEY AMERICAS, BY TAMMY GRISHAM AND D. ZACHARY MISKO Introduction Company Background and Environment The Challenge and Approach The Technology Strategy for Sourcing LEAN Methodologies Expansion Conclusion 103 104 104 105 106 108 111 113 114 CHAPTER SEVEN: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, BY SUSAN CLAYTON, VICTORIA BAUGH, AND MATHEW J. FERRERO Introduction Company Background and Current Leadership Environment The 21st Century IRS Leadership Succession Planning—The Challenges LSR Website and Infrastructure Results Indicators of Success Evaluation Next Steps Conclusion 115 116 116 118 121 126 128 131 132 133 134 CHAPTER EIGHT: KAISER PERMANENTE COLORADO REGION, BY MARGARET TURNER Introduction Design Process Implementation Support and Reinforce Evaluation Next Steps Conclusion 136 137 140 142 150 152 153 153 154 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to x Contents CHAPTER NINE: MCDONALD’S, BY JAMES INTAGLIATA AND NEAL KULICK Context for Global Talent Management Initiatives 155 156 Evolution of the Talent Management System: Key Initiatives and Enhancements 159 Overall Summary 175 CHAPTER TEN: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, BY SHANNON WALLIS, BRIAN O. UNDERHILL, AND CARTER MCNAMARA Introduction What Led Microsoft SMSG to Make the Change 177 178 179 Expo Leaders Building Leaders—The New High-Potential Development Experience 179 The Process of Redesigning the High-Potential Development Experience 189 Coaching as a Primary Development Component for HiPo Development in SMSG 191 Learning Circles as a Primary Development Component for HiPo Development in SMSG 199 Conclusion 206 CHAPTER ELEVEN: MURRAY & ROBERTS LIMITED, BY ZELIA SOARES Introduction Design and Alignment Implementation Evaluation Summary 208 209 214 220 223 224 CHAPTER TWELVE: PORTER NOVELLI, BY GREG WALDRON Introduction Program Implementation Performance Management System Development Evaluation 225 226 231 236 239 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Contents xi CHAPTER THIRTEEN: SOUTHERN COMPANY, BY JIM GREENE Introduction Background Initial Improvements The Leadership Action Council Competency Model Leadership Assessment Succession Planning Leadership Database Development Activities Evaluation and Lessons Learned 241 242 242 243 246 247 248 249 254 254 256 CHAPTER FOURTEEN: WHIRLPOOL CORPORATION, BY KRISTEN WEIRICK Introduction The Business Challenge Design and Approach Evaluation Next Steps Summary 258 259 259 260 265 266 269 Conclusion 271 Epilogue, by William J. Rothwell 288 Index 295 About Best Practice Institute 303 About the Editors 305 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to INTRODUCTION LOUIS CARTER The assets of an enterprise can perhaps be divided into two parts: its people, and everything else. While some may measure the value of a company by its real estate, sales, inventories, supply chains, accounts receivable, brand recognition, and the thousands of other pieces that when assembled create an organization’s physical and market presence, it may also be said quite simply that a company consists of the human beings who use technology to improve the lives of their fellow citizens. A dictionary definition of “talent” is people who possess a special aptitude or faculty. There is in this definition the whiff of creativity, of thinking outside the box, of a unique ability to solve a problem. Today’s intensely competitive marketplace tolerates no automatons or robotic time-card-punchers who dutifully perform the same task year after year and hope to retire with a gold watch. Companies large and small—both the mom-and-pop corner store and the global Fortune 500 leviathan—must be nimble, creative, and ready to abandon the old reliable methods when challenged by new paradigms. The performance of a task by rote inevitably leads to decline and irrelevance; talent is what infuses the human experience with dynamism and creativity. In recognition of the importance of human assets to an enterprise, a subject now given stark new importance with the global economic crisis that began in 2008, The Best Practice Institute surveyed a range of enterprises in order to identify leaders in human resource management, and specifically those that had initiated transformative efforts to strengthen organizational leadership. We looked for organizations that had responded to either external or internal challenges—or a combination of both—and successfully created programs that brought out the very best in their existing talent, and helped to recruit and train new talent from outside. For this book, The Best Practice Institute carefully selected fourteen dynamic enterprises that have succeeded in implementing talent enhancement programs— although to be fair, to call them “programs” is not entirely accurate, as they are in reality vital strategic components integrated into the companies’ core operating values. For what we found was that, to be effective, change must happen in the very guts and muscles and bones of a corporate body, and not be a mere cosmetic applied to the visible exterior. The enterprises presented here responded to inevitable evolutionary forces xiii EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xiv Introduction with carefully considered and emphatically administered strategies that not only made a difference to the short-term success of the company but provided a compass setting in the direction of future growth and vigorous health. Indeed, it can be said that a crisis— even such as we are experiencing in the close of the first decade of the 21st century— provides an opportunity for the type of reinvention, renewal, and revolutionary progress that is not likely to be undertaken during more comfortable, less interesting times. The enterprises we surveyed represent a wide spectrum of industries. They include financial giants in banking and government revenue collection and global leaders in fast food, marketing communications, technology, industrial construction, insurance, and consumer products. Every case was unique, and every solution grew out of each company’s strategy for growth. And while it is understood that solutions devised by one company cannot be grafted onto another, it is expected that the diagnostic processes and values embraced by these fourteen success stories may prove to be an inspiration and guide for any enterprise seeking to strengthen its most valuable asset—its talent. THE ENTERPRISES In this book we present fourteen organizations that, for a variety of reasons, embarked on a program of self-examination and renewal that focused on enhancing the value of their talent. The companies are varied—indeed, one is a U.S. government agency and one is a not-for-profit health plan—and each was faced with a unique set of circumstances that made change necessary. Each made the evolutionary step and, like the caterpillar that metamorphoses into a butterfly, emerged with the same DNA but somehow permanently altered and more able to thrive in a harsh environment. The fourteen companies are listed in Table I.1. Avon Products, Inc., is a $10 billion consumer products company that for over one hundred years has promoted the economic empowerment of women around the globe. Bank of America is one of the world’s largest financial institutions, serving individual consumers, small and middle market businesses, and large corporations with a full range of banking, investing, asset management, and other financial and risk-management products and services. The company serves more than fifty-nine million consumer and small business relationships in 150 countries. Drawing on more than 150 years of innovation, Corning is a world leader in specialty glass and ceramics, creating and manufacturing sophisticated components that enable high-technology systems. Ecolab, with more than $6 billion in sales, is a global leader in cleaning, sanitizing, food safety, and infection control products and services. General Electric (GE) is a global infrastructure, finance, and media company producing a wide range of products from everyday light bulbs to fuel cell technology, to cleaner, more efficient jet engines. The subject of our survey is GE Money Americas, the consumer finance brand for GE Consumer Finance worldwide, with more than $163 billion in assets. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction xv TABLE I.1. List of Best Practice Corporations in Talent Management Parent Company Total Employees Revenues ($US) Company or Division Industry Avon Consumer goods 42,000 $10 billion Bank of America Banking 243,000 $119 billion* CES Division Insurance 38,000 $36 billion Corning Incorporated Technology 27,000 $5.95 billion Ecolab Industrial products 26,050 $6.14 billion GE Money Americas Consumer finance 323,000 $182.52 billion Internal Revenue Service U.S. government agency 79,000 $2.7 trillion Kaiser Permanente Colorado Health plan 5,400** $1.9 billion** McDonald’s Food service 400,000 $23.52 billion Microsoft SMSG Software 91,000 $60.42 billion Murray & Roberts Construction 33,466 $18.2 billion Porter Novelli Marketing communications 70,000 $12.6 billion Southern Company Electric utility 26,742 $15.35 billion Whirlpool Consumer goods 70,000 $18.91 billion *2007 **Colorado only The Internal Revenue Service was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and helps Americans “understand and meet their tax responsibilities.” The IRS has 79,000 full-time employees and in 2007 received $2.7 trillion in tax receipts. Our Fortune 100 insurance company includes our subject, the Customer and Enterprise Services division (CES), which encompasses accounting, call centers, inspections, and even one of the country’s largest printing shops. Founded in 1945, Kaiser Permanente is the nation’s largest not-for-profit health plan, serving 8.6 million members, with headquarters in Oakland, California. In this book we focus on Kaiser Permanente Colorado, which has more than 5,400 employees EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xvi Introduction and 2006 revenues of $1.9 billion. McDonald’s operates or franchises more than 30,000 restaurants in 119 countries, and directly employs 47,500 people with a total of 400,000, including franchisees. Microsoft is the worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential; the Sales Marketing and Services Group (SMSG) employs more than 45,000 people and is responsible for Microsoft sales, marketing, and service initiatives; customer and partner programs; and product support and consulting services worldwide. South Africa’s leading engineering, contracting, and construction services company, Murray & Roberts, has 34,000 employees across five continents. Porter Novelli, a wholly owned subsidiary of Omnicom Group Incorporated, is one of the world’s top ten public relations companies with offices in fifty-four countries. With nearly 4.4 million customers and more than 42,000 megawatts of generating capacity, Atlanta-based Southern Company is the premier energy company serving the Southeast. Whirlpool Corporation is a leader of the $100 billion global home appliance industry. With a presence in nearly every country around the world, Whirlpool manufactures appliances across all major categories, including fabric care, cooking, refrigeration, dishwashers, countertop appliances, garage organization, and water filtration. THE BEST PRACTICE INSTITUTE SIX-PHASE SYSTEM TO TALENT MANAGEMENT As the result of years of research and first-hand involvement with hundreds of top companies, The Best Practice Institute has developed a six-phase system to talent management that brings together lessons and strategies from the most successful case studies: 1. Business diagnosis 2. Assessment 3. Program design 4. Implementation 5. On-the-job support 6. Evaluation Phase One: Business Diagnosis—The Catalysts for Change During periods of smooth sailing—growing markets, new products, rising revenues— it is not unusual for companies to take their talent for granted. The human resources office may be unconcerned about turnover and employee satisfaction. The CEO may cast a satisfied eye on his or her realm and pronounce it good. The board may assume that management has everything under control. Golf is played on Mondays. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction xvii But sooner or later the system breaks down, is inadequate for growth, or is threatened by an external force. The metrics and practices that were acceptable suddenly look flawed. Profits slump. Employee turnover soars. Markets constrict. Board members start attending meetings. The fourteen organizations presented here were each faced with a moment of reckoning: at a point in their development when it became clear that painful change was necessary. Each of them turned attention to the question of talent management, and each followed a process of diagnosis, assessment, program design, implementation, on-the-job support, and evaluation. Each was able to transform its talent management and make the company healthier, more competitive, and better able to fulfill its mission. And in every case, the process began with a rigorous, unflinching diagnosis. Internal Realignment Some of our case studies responded to the perception that the organization itself had become lethargic or was following inappropriate strategies. John Bader, vice president of the Insurance CES division, sensed a qualitative problem with the system’s six thousand employees at fourteen locations around the world. Managers were locked into a 19th-century mindset: people were managed like commodities; innovation was nonexistent; growth was stagnant. The customer was someone to be tolerated, not thrilled. It is a corporate axiom that when hiring executive talent, 60 percent should be promoted from within the organization, and 40 percent on-boarded from outside. This ratio provides a mix of institutional loyalty and experience and new approaches and viewpoints. At Kaiser Permanente, the National Organization realized that 65 percent of its executives were recruited externally, indicating that the organization was not focusing on leadership succession management and that it needed to build an internal pipeline of leaders. The opposite situation existed at Southern Company. The electric utility, with over 26,000 employees, had traditionally followed a strategy of hiring at the entry level and promoting from within. In 2003, the average age of its executives was fifty-two—and at Southern Company, employees are eligible to retire at age fifty. The company faced a shortage of executives as the retirement wave approached, and embarked on a study to determine how to most effectively produce a sustainable supply of quality leaders. Capacity Matches Growth At Avon, Inc., CEO Andrea Jung faced a different prob- lem: the company’s growth had outpaced organizational capacity. In 2005 the company had achieved a 10 percent annual growth rate and operated in more than forty countries worldwide. But as Avon entered 2006, revenues flattened and operating profits declined. Jung and her team realized that, in order to move forward, the company had to be restructured. After reviewing the company’s talent practices, the Talent Management Group identified weaknesses including opacity, excessive complexity, a lack of quantitative measurements, and inconsistency. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xviii Introduction Over the past decade, Bank of America has achieved spectacular growth both organically and through acquisitions. As a result, the company must annually recruit and hire and train a significant number of executives. Typically, industry figures suggest that 40 percent of senior managers hired from the outside fail within their first eighteen months on the job (Watkins, 2003). This rate was unacceptable to Bank of America, and the leadership development group needed to quickly and effectively devise strategies to on-board executive leaders from acquired banks. At Whirlpool, the growth, size, and scale of the company, along with a more demanding consumer marketplace and competition for talent, prompted the company to build a defined set of leadership competencies and put into place an effective talent management system. In 2001, Ecolab’s executive team committed to an aggressive growth goal—they intended to increase revenues at a 15 percent annual growth rate for five years, and by 2007 more than double the company’s size. However, they recognized that they did not have the number of qualified leaders required to effectively run an organization twice its current size. The lack of leadership talent and bench strength was identified as a primary constraint to its success. Building Talent Resources for the Future Corning bases its long-term success on its ability to nurture and grow both talent and technology over the long term—twentyfive and even fifty years. In today’s competitive environment, CEO Jamie Houghton realized that the company had to step up the pace of innovation, moving from a target of one to two breakthroughs per decade to two to four breakthroughs. The Internal Revenue Service has a bigger boss than most other companies: the U.S. Congress. With the passing of the Revenue Reform Act of 1998, the IRS underwent a restructuring and modernization that left it with a shortage of qualified employees. In 2001 Commissioner Charles Rossotti directed a review of IRS leadership competencies, and in 2008 Commissioner Douglas Schulman created the “Workforce of Tomorrow” task force to prepare the IRS for the next fifteen years. Beginning in 2004, leading global marketing communications company Porter Novelli undertook a fundamental strategic assessment to position itself for growth during the next five years. The senior management group identified the need to restructure human resources management to reflect the company’s client-centric focus and encourage employee engagement with the company’s vision. Creating Consistent Internal Systems With more than 45,000 employees, Micro- soft’s SMSG division had a high-potential development program in each of its thirteen geographical areas. The programs were not aligned to Microsoft’s Leadership Career Model and there were no consistent criteria for defining high-potentials, making lateral movement difficult. Similarly, at Murray & Roberts, with operations spread over Southern Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australasia, and North America, talent management processes and practices were not formalized or even were nonexistent. There was no codified succession plan or centralized talent inventory. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction xix At McDonald’s, systems existed for evaluating manager performance, but there was no control over validity. Management discovered there was chronic rating inflation for both annual performance (amazingly, 98 percent of managers were rated either “Outstanding” or “Excellent”) and potential (78 percent of managers were rated as having the potential to advance in the business at least one level), rendering the system useless and creating a false sense of entitlement. Toward an Efficient Hiring System Sometimes the process of on-boarding is inefficient and expensive. At GE Money Americas, recruiters realized that the high volume of job applicants was not being managed efficiently: there were too few outlets for applicants to apply, narrow reporting capabilities, unclear processes, the cost per hire was an unacceptable $8,000 each, and the time to fill a position often exceeded three months. Phase Two: Assessment The fourteen companies in this book were faced with a wide variety of challenges, both internal and external, and the assessment strategies were unique to each enterprise. Different groups—the CEO, human resources, a task force—took the lead in driving change. In some organizations the focus on change was narrow and involved a select group of potential high-performers; at other organizations the determination was made that the effort had to be company-wide. It must be pointed out that there is a difference between evaluating talent—seeing which employees show up on time and do their jobs and hit their numbers—and investing in talent, which requires a much more proactive effort to identify, train, and prepare talent for the future. Not everyone can be a leader; that’s just a fact of life. But surely every person who draws a salary or punches a time card at a company needs to be committed and inspired and empowered to be creative. The kid who gets his first job in the mailroom could work his or her way up the ladder to be CEO—it has happened before and it will happen again. In an ideal world, every employee would receive training appropriate to his or her aspirations and capabilities. Our fourteen enterprises, having made the decision to evaluate and/or invest in talent, took varied approaches to the scope of the process and the number of participants. At one end of the spectrum, the Insurance CES’s John Bader initially included the division’s core leadership team (CLT) in the first “wave” of leadership alignment sessions. The results were so positive that the CLT committed to transforming the entire system—all six thousand employees in fourteen locations around the world. They created a series of waves that included 1,200 employees in groups of three hundred to five hundred, and then a massive one-day event with everyone else. At the Internal Revenue Service, the Workforce of Tomorrow (WoT) Task Force was charged with restructuring human resource policies and practices that would affect the entire 79,000-member workforce. Murray & Roberts’s Leadership Pipeline was EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xx Introduction created to be accessible to any manager in the company, as were the pipelines at Porter Novelli, Whirlpool, and Southern Company, where succession plans for the top sixty-five positions across the company were formulated. Ecolab, which also adopted the Leadership Pipeline philosophy, presented an initial launch at an annual meeting where approximately 1,100 key leaders in the company were introduced to the Talent Pipeline in small-group, face-to-face meetings. McDonald’s five-part initiative reaches every staff position, with additional investments for executives. Bank of America’s on-boarding program was primarily focused on executives who came to the company from outside, and in the past seven years has tested its approaches on five hundred internal and external hires. Many companies, however, chose to invest only in identified potential leaders. At Avon, a key plank in the company’s approach was to place a few “big bets” on a small number of leaders. With limited funds to spend, Avon followed research that suggested the top 5 to 10 percent of a workforce population was capable of advanced leadership. The company’s investment in its highest potential leaders was five to ten times what could be invested in an average performer. The investment included training, coaching, and incentive compensation. Perhaps because they were seeking program managers with highly specialized technical skills, Corning’s two-week Leadership Fundamentals for Program Managers program involved thirty-three incumbent participants. Similarly, Kaiser Permanente, which focused its talent development efforts on building an in internal pipeline to reduce the number of external hires, identified approximately fifty-five incumbents in its first review process. Microsoft’s SMSG division targeted less than 4 percent of its population—still, more than 1,600 individuals—for its ExPo Leaders Building Leaders program. At Hewlett-Packard, the executive development process is aimed at understanding the quality, strengths and development needs of the talent at the vice presidential level worldwide. Phase Three: Program Design Once the problem was identified and scope of the solution determined, the next step for our fourteen companies was to design the program. In some cases, the solution involved a specific program limited to a set number of individuals; in other cases the transformation was company-wide and affected everyone who drew a salary. In most cases the CEO was personally invested, giving the program the authority of the highest office and energizing the executive layers below. Some efforts were designed and executed wholly in-house, while in other cases outside consultants were brought in to either provide an objective viewpoint or supply specialized expertise. The choice made by our fourteen companies to create a comprehensive plan is in alignment with the results of the Best Practice Institute’s recent Talent Management Survey, in which we surveyed forty-five leading companies and found that well over half (60 percent) had a formal talent management plan in place. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction xxi Here are a few highlights of the fourteen companies’ program designs: Avon Products ■ CEO Andrea Jung and the Talent Management Group (TM) built their talent practices on two guiding principles: execute on the “what” and differentiate on the “how.” ■ Moved from a regional to a matrix structure; cut management layers; made a significant investment in management talent. Bank of America ■ CEO Ken Lewis personally spearheaded BOA’s executive development strategy. ■ Created a New Executive Orientation Program with coaching and support. Corning ■ Created a boot camp immersion experience for potential program managers. ■ The Corning Management Committee chartered a task team to design a pipeline for program leaders. Ecolab ■ Human Resources formulated key areas and ways through which Ecolab would establish and maintain its competitive advantage—the five key business drivers. These included Talent Development, Leadership, Relationships, Innovation, and Delivering Results. ■ HR established the Ecolab Talent Council, composed of the ten most senior Ecolab executives including the CEO, and representing all key business lines, geographies, and critical functions. GE Money Americas ■ With the assistance of a human resources consultant, created a centralized staffing process and a dedicated team. ■ Applied the Lean approach to the staffing process to create efficiencies and cut costs. Insurance CES Division ■ Hired consultants to review CES’s structure and finances and another set of consultants to perform an assessment survey. ■ Got the ball rolling with a no-holds-barred leadership conference. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xxii Introduction Internal Revenue Service ■ Developed a competency model with twenty-one leadership competencies. ■ In collaboration with a consultant, developed the Leadership Succession Review (LSR). Kaiser Permanente Colorado ■ Restructured in collaboration with the Kaiser Permanente National Organization. ■ Designed a series of programs including the Peer Network, Leadership Edge, Experience Management, and Executive Coaching. McDonald’s ■ Top management asked Human Resources to redesign the performance development system in order to place a stronger focus on accountability for results, increase performance differentiation, and enhance openness to change and innovation. Microsoft SMSG ■ Formed a new program, ExPo Leaders Building Leaders (ExPo stands for Exceptional Potential), drawing on the Corporate Leadership Council’s 2005 study “Realizing the Full Potential of Rising Talent.” Murray & Roberts ■ A project team was assembled consisting of line managers, HR practitioners, and a consultant. The project team reported to the executive in the Office of the Group CE. Porter Novelli ■ Hired a chief talent officer to work with the executive management group. ■ Implemented a Leadership Pipeline program with results-based role definitions. ■ In a series of staff interviews, Porter Novelli grappled with the question of defining leadership and management. These concepts were regarded as critically important, but participants stated that neither was well-articulated or easily measured. A client-centered strategy was a key success factor, as was creative thinking. Southern Company ■ The CEO initiated an in-depth review of the company’s leadership development and succession processes. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction ■ xxiii Chartered a group of executives as the Leadership Action Council, serving as a steering committee for leadership development. Whirlpool ■ Chairman David Whitman and the executive committee spearheaded development of the Whirlpool Leadership Model. Who says that corporations have no loyalty to their executives? The results of the Best Practice Institute’s recent Talent Management Survey found that fully 36.5 percent of corporate respondents were focused on developing talent internally; 59.7 percent were developing both internal and external talent; and only 3.8 percent were focused exclusively on acquiring external talent. Phase Four: Implementation The implementations reflect the goals of the respective organizations, the challenges faced, and the scope of the restructuring. At Bank of America, which has focused on improving the quality of external hires, outside recruiters must understand the bank’s culture and leadership requirements, and consequently Human Resources devotes a great deal of attention to its partnerships with executive search firms. Once a candidate is presented to the bank, interviews with the candidate are conducted by one of the bank’s Leadership Development Officers (LD Partner) to assess compatibility. Stakeholders, including a leadership development officer (LD), interview candidates; but a complete picture is formed when the LD in turn interviews the interviewers. This 360-degree approach provides a sense of how well the candidate—who may have enjoyed a successful career at another banking institution—will fit into Bank of America’s culture and work environment. GE Money Americas, also concerned with the quality of outside hires, centralized and restructured the application process. The company introduced the Lean Principle, 5S, as the foundation for all improvements focused on Kaizen opportunities. The Internal Revenue Service created the Leadership Succession Review process, which provides a highly structured and disciplined approach for each IRS Business Unit to prepare qualified leaders. Kaiser Permanente Colorado created the Executive Leadership Program, which provides participants with an opportunity to evaluate and strengthen their leadership approach and skills. Whirlpool initiated the Master Assessor Program, which trains both human resources staff and line managers with frequent hiring needs to identify and evaluate potential leaders. At Microsoft SMSG, a foundation of the ExPo program is regular interaction between high-potentials and current leaders, in order to build the capability of future leaders and also to give senior leaders greater accountability. Executives demonstrate engagement by conducting ongoing reviews, acting as mentors and coaches, and even accompanying high-potentials on business trips. At Murray & Roberts, managers and subordinates sign a performance contract and development plan that charts a course for success. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xxiv Introduction At some companies, travel is involved. Insurance CES held a series of leadership retreats, initially with executives but expanded to include all six thousand employees. Corning created “Boot Camp for Program Managers,” a two-week program held at the stately old home and newly transformed company conference center of the former CEO Jamie Houghton. Phase Five: On-the-Job Support Diagnosing the challenge, assessing the effort, designing the program, and implementing the program are critical steps to organizational transformation. Committed managers know, however, that the lessons learned in program participation must be carried through to the daily grind of business. They must be proven in the field and must translate into measurable results. For this next phase to succeed, companies must support their talent as they put their new confidence and insights into practice. At Bank of America, new hires are paired with peer coaches (a fellow executive) and a senior advisor at the same level or above. To facilitate a close relationship between the new executive and his or her team, a New Leader-Team Integration session takes place within the first thirty to sixty days of an assignment. Kaiser Permanente Colorado includes 360-degree feedback, BarOn EQ-i 360degree feedback, Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and Insights Assessment. Each potential leader is assigned a case manager who works with him or her on a personal development plan. The Leadership Edge Program has an alumni group that continues to work with the executive team on business solutions. Follow-up remedial workshops were instituted by Porter Novelli, and in 2007 a performance management workshop focused on skills in creating SMART goals and cascading goals from manager to subordinates in a work team. At Southern Company, job assignments, developmental moves, and special assignments are the primary methods for developing high-potential individuals. An educational experience for cross-system high-potential managers who are ready to move into officer roles is being created by Human Resources. Phase Six: Evaluation Within a company the need for leadership development may exist, but is there an agreed-on standard that will serve as a benchmark or threshold for promotion? Evaluating an existing manager can sometimes be as simple as measuring quarterly revenues. For some companies, a restructured talent development strategy means identifying, hiring, and retaining individuals who have executive qualities that are aligned with existing metrics: work history, project success, skill sets. But in other cases choosing potential leaders for future advancement not unlike consulting the Oracle of Delphi. How do you predict an executive’s performance at a new position that is vastly more complex than the previous job? As part of the talent restructuring process, more than a few organizations went back to the drawing board to create a new definition of EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Introduction xxv leadership, one that cut across the existing talent pool and reshaped the company’s most fundamental talent characteristics. And, if such a definition could include methods of measurement, so much the better. Today, we can see what the results have been. The Internal Revenue Service, perhaps not surprisingly, uses a table with numeric scores. On the Leadership Competency Targets by Leadership Level table, candidates are scored 1 through 4 in categories that include Adaptability, Customer Focus, Continual Learning, and Political Savvy. Varying target levels are designated, depending on organizational rank. An executive, for example, should score a “4” in Business Acumen, while a regular employee needs to score only a “1” in the same category. In addition, a matrix is used to rank individuals according to their readiness to assume leadership positions. Kaiser Permanente uses a Model of Potential, a set of assessments that factors Performance, Abilities, and Predictors of Potential to provide a score of Promotability. At Kaiser, it’s important that an executive candidate has the ability to be mobile, and there’s a survey tool that gathers information related to a candidate’s aspirations, technical skills, and proficiency at VP-level behaviors. McDonald’s initiated five programs, including a set of Talent Reviews, ensuring that the president and lead staff officer of each geographical division are responsible and accountable for addressing the leadership talent needs in their area and are doing so within the framework of the template. Murray & Roberts adopted the Leadership Pipeline philosophy and moved away from a numeric system to a qualitative approach, which requires managers to apply a thinking model supported by evidence, as opposed to manipulating and arguing about numbers. Performance is defined through a set of symbolic circles that are filled in by lines representing performance dimensions. The more snugly the lines fit into the circle, the higher the probability of success in leadership. How do we measure overall program success? Is there a bottom-line indicator that tells us that our investment has paid off and our talent is optimized? Many of our companies reported quantitative and qualitative measures of program success: ■ At Insurance CES, the wave seminar events produced higher customer satisfaction, increased engagement by customers and employees, and millions of dollars saved over and above the cost of the program. ■ Avon reported faster movement of talent into key markets and accelerated development of leaders. There was also a rise in revenue to $11 billion in 2009 from $8 billion in 2005, despite 10 percent fewer Associates. ■ Since 2005, Kaiser Permanente Colorado has identified thirteen high-potential leaders, of whom 60 percent have been either promoted or given expanded roles. ■ Murray & Roberts reports benefits including job clarity, identification of successors, improved feedback, and cross-company appointments. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xxvi Introduction ■ Porter Novelli, after instituting the Leadership Pipeline, experienced a decline in turnover of 24 percent from 2005 to 2006, and in 2006 and 2007 reported zero turnover of identified high-potential managers. ■ Whirlpool Corporation’s Quality of Hire Metrics indicate that that the Master Assessor Program has had a positive impact on the quality of hires, who perform at high levels and exhibit high levels of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION We have seen from our fourteen success stories that when an organization reaches a crossroads in talent management, a consistent and comprehensive approach can provide both a measurable benefit and assurance of long-term growth. Each solution must organically grow from the unique circumstances of a particular moment in time and set of circumstances. While each case is different, valuable lessons can be learned from these examples because together they provide a template showing how to diagnose, assess, and address the challenges that face every organization today. Their commonality lies in the dedication and imagination of the talent that drives every successful enterprise. As we move into -great recession era, challenges will arise that do not have the comfort of familiarity. Solutions must be crafted with integrity, honesty, and an appreciation for the best qualities of the people who every day try to do the very best they can for themselves, their companies, and their communities. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Best Practice Institute Team Contributors BPI Editorial Team Louis Carter, CEO Marc Effron, Avon Samantha Francart, Assistant Jay Conger, Bank of America Dr. William Rothwell Brian Fishel, Bank of America John Bader, CES Division Gary Jusela, Corning Mike Schechter, CES Division Richard O’Leary, Corning Heath Topper, Corning Bob Barnett, Ecolabs Zachary Misko, General Electric David Krieg, Internal Revenue Service Margaret Turner, Kaiser Permanente James Intagliata, McDonald’s Neal Kulick, McDonald’s Shannon Wallis, Microsoft Brian Underhill, Microsoft Zelia Soares, Murray & Roberts Greg Waldron, Porter Novelli Jim Greene, Southern Company Kristen Weirick, Whirlpool xxvii EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to HOW TO USE THIS BOOK PRACTICAL APPLICATION This book contains step-by-step approaches, tools, instruments, models, and practices for implementing top talent management programs into your organization. The components of this book can be practically leveraged within your work environment to enable a top talent management initiative. The exhibits, forms, and instruments at the back of each chapter may be used within the classroom or by your organization development team and/or learners. BENCHMARKING, APPLICATION, AND CUSTOMIZATION OF TALENT DEVELOPMENT/MANAGEMENT INTO YOUR ORGANIZATION OR CLIENT ORGANIZATION The case studies, tools, and research within this book are ideal for managers, executives and consultants who are implementing or managing a talent program, inside of a current talent management program, or are currently seeking a job from one of the organizations in this book. Students of advanced degree courses in management, organization development and behavior, and/or social/organizational psychology should also take notice of this book, as it contains critical information that is useful for your practicum and internship work. This book can be used by any senior vice president, vice president, director, or program manager who is in charge of leadership development and change for his/her organization. Teams of managers—project manager, program managers, HR/OD designers, or other program designers and trainers—should use the case studies in this book as starting points and benchmarks for the success of the organization’s initiatives. This book contains a series of distinct case studies with various corporate needs and objectives. It is your job as the reader to begin the process of diagnosing your company’s unique organizational objectives. When applying and learning from the case studies and research in this book, ask yourself, your team, and each other the following questions: ■ What is our context today? ■ What do we/I want to accomplish? Why? ■ What am I most passionate about leading talent management in? Why? ■ What are the issue(s) and concerns we are challenged with? xxix EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to xxx How to use this book ■ Are we asking the right questions? ■ Who are the right stakeholders? ■ What approaches have worked in the past before? Why? ■ What approaches have failed before? Why? For more information on Best Practice Institute’s benchmark research and executive boards on the most current talent management topics, contact BPI directly on our toll free number at: (800) 718-4274 or via e-mail at: Please visit us online at and If you would like to connect with any expert, practitioner, or author in this book, please e-mail us at All contributors/authors in this book are listed/known experts within the Best Practice Institute community. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to CHAPTER 1 AVON PRODUCTS, INC. MARC EFFRON A leadership development and talent turnaround system designed for executives that leverage 360-degree feedback, a leadership skill/competency model, and individual development planning. ■ Introduction ■ A Success-Driven Challenge ■ The Turnaround ■ The Talent Challenge ■ Execute on the “What,” Differentiate with “How” ■ From Opaque to Transparent ■ ■ The Avon 360 ■ Broad-Based Transparency From Complex to Simple ■ Performance Management ■ Engagement Survey 1 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 2 Best Practices in Talent Management ■ From Egalitarian to Differentiated ■ Communication to Leadership Teams ■ A Few Big Bets ■ Tools and Processes ■ From Episodic to Disciplined ■ From Emotional to Factual ■ From Meaningless to Consequential ■ The Results of a Talent Turnaround ■ Measuring the Talent Turnaround’s Success INTRODUCTION In early 2006, Avon Products, Inc., a global consumer products company focused on the economic empowerment of women around the world, began the most radical restructuring process in its 120-year history. Driving this effort was the belief that Avon could sustain its historically strong financial performance while building the foundation for a larger, more globally integrated organization. The proposed changes would affect every aspect of the organization and would demand an approach to finding, building, and engaging talent that differed from anything tried before. A SUCCESS-DRIVEN CHALLENGE Avon Products is a 122-year-old company originally founded by David H. McConnell— a door-to-door book seller who distributed free samples of perfume as an incentive to his customers. He soon discovered that customers were more interested in samples of his rose oil perfumes than in his books and so, in 1886, he founded the California Perfume Company. Renamed Avon Products in 1939, the organization steadily grew to become a leader in the direct selling of cosmetics, fragrances, and skin care products. By 2005, Avon was an $8 billion company that had achieved a 10 percent cumulative annual growth rate (CAGR) in revenue and a 25 percent CAGR in operating profit from 2000 through 2004. A global company, Avon operated in more than forty countries and received more than 70 percent of its earnings from outside the United States. By all typical financial metrics, Avon was a very successful company. However, as the company entered 2006 it found itself challenged by flattening revenues and declining operating profits. While the situation had many contributing causes, one underlying issue was that Avon had grown faster than portions of its infrastructure and talent could support. As with many growing organizations, the structures, people, and processes that were right for a $5 billion company weren’t necessarily a good fit for a $10 billion company. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 3 THE TURNAROUND Faced with these challenges, CEO Andrea Jung and her executive team launched a fundamental restructuring of the organization in January 2006. Some of the larger changes announced included: ■ Moving from a Regional to a Matrix Structure: Geographic regions that had operated with significant latitude were now matrixed with global business functions, including Marketing and Supply Chain. ■ Delayering: A systematic, six-month process was started to take the organization from fifteen layers of management to eight, including a compensation and benefit reduction of up to 25 percent. ■ Significant Investment in Executive Talent: Of the CEO’s fourteen direct reports, six key roles were replaced externally from 2004 to 2006, including the CFO, head of North America, head of Latin America, and the leaders of Human Resources, Marketing, and Strategy. Five of her other direct reports were in new roles. ■ New Capabilities Were Created: A major effort to source Brand Management, Marketing Analytics, and Supply Chain capabilities was launched, which brought hundreds of new leaders into Avon. THE TALENT CHALLENGE As the turnaround was launched, numerous gaps existed in Avon’s existing talent and in its ability to identify and produce talent. While some of those gaps were due to missing or poorly functioning talent processes, an underlying weakness seemed to lie in the overall approach to managing talent and talent practices. After reviewing Avon’s existing talent practices, the talent management group (TM) identified six overriding weaknesses that hurt their effectiveness. They found that existing talent practices were ■ Opaque: Neither managers nor Associates knew how existing talent practices (that is, performance management, succession planning) worked or what they were intended to do. To the average employee, these processes were a black box. ■ Egalitarian: While the Avon culture reinforced treating every Associate well, this behavior had morphed into treating every Associate in the same way. High performers weren’t enjoying a fundamentally different work experience and low performers weren’t being managed effectively. ■ Complex: The performance management form was ten pages long, and the succession planning process required a full-time employee just to manage the data and assemble thick black binders of information for twice-yearly reviews. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 4 Best Practices in Talent Management Complexity existed without commensurate value, and the effectiveness rate of the talent practices was low. ■ Episodic: Employee surveys, talent reviews, development planning, and succession planning, when done at all, were done at a frequency determined by individual managers around the world. ■ Emotional: Decisions on talent movement, promotions, and other key talent activities were often influenced as much by individual knowledge and emotion as by objective facts. ■ Meaningless: No talent practice had “teeth.” HR couldn’t answer the most basic question a manager might ask about talent practices—“What will happen to me if I don’t do this?” EXECUTE ON THE “WHAT,” DIFFERENTIATE WITH “HOW” Our TM group found ourselves in a difficult situation. Fundamental changes were needed in every talent practice, and the practices had to be changed and implemented in time to support the turnaround. This meant that the practices had to be quick to build, easy to use, and, most of all, effective. Taking our guidance from the Top Companies for Leaders study (Effron, Greenslade, & Salob, 2005) and the philosophies of executive coach Marshall Goldsmith (2006), we decided to build our talent practices with two key guiding principles. 1. Execute on the “what.” The Top Companies for Leaders study found that simple, well-executed talent practices dominated at companies that consistently produced great earnings and great leaders. We similarly believed that fundamental talent practices (that is, performance management or succession planning) would deliver the expected results if they were consistently and flawlessly executed. We decided to build talent practices that were easy to implement and a talent management structure that would ensure they were consistently and flawlessly implemented. More importantly, we decided to . . . 2. Differentiate on “how.” While disciplined execution could create a strong foundation for success, the six adjectives that described Avon’s current processes were largely responsible for their failure. We drew inspiration from Marshall Goldsmith’s revolutionary recreation of the executive coaching process. He had taken a staid, academic/therapy model for improving leaders and turned it into a simple but powerful process that was proven effective in changing leaders’ behaviors. With those two guiding principles in place, we began a 180-degree transformation of Avon’s talent practices. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 5 FROM OPAQUE TO TRANSPARENT One of the most simple and powerful changes was to bring as much transparency as possible to every talent practice. TM designed new practices and redesigned existing ones using total transparency as the starting point. Transparency was only removed when confidentiality concerns outweighed the benefits of sharing information. The change in Avon’s 360 assessment process was a telling example. The Avon 360 Avon’s 360-degree assessment process was hardly a model of transparency when the turnaround began. When the new TM leader arrived at Avon, he asked for copies of each VP’s 360-degree assessment, with the goal of better understanding any common behavioral strengths and weaknesses. He was told by the 360 administrator in his group that he was not allowed to see them. The TM leader explained that his intent wasn’t to take any action on an individual VP, simply to learn more about his clients. He was again told “no”—that confidentiality prevented their disclosure. While the administrator was correct in withholding the information (the participants had been promised 100 percent confidentiality), the fact that the most critical behavioral information about top leaders was not visible to the TM leader (or anyone else) had to change. A new, much simpler 360 was designed and implemented that explicitly stated that proper managerial and leadership behaviors were critical for a leader ’s success at Avon. Citing that level of importance, the disclosure to all participants and respondents stated that the 360 information could be shown to the participant’s manager, HR leader, regional talent leader, and anyone else the Avon’s HR team decided was critical to the participant’s development. It also stated that the behavioral information could be considered when making decisions about talent moves, including promotions or project assignments. Helping to make this transition to transparency easier, the new 360 assessment and report differed from typical tools that rate the participant on proficiency in various areas. The Avon 360 borrowed heavily from the “feed-forward” principles of Marshall Goldsmith1 and showed the participant which behaviors participants wanted to see more of, or less of, going forward. Without the potential stigma of having others seeing you rated as a “bad” manager, openly sharing 360 findings quickly evaporated as an issue. Broad-Based Transparency Transparency was woven into every talent process or program in a variety of ways. Examples would include: ■ Career Development Plans: To provide Associates with more transparency about how to succeed at Avon, the HR team developed “The Deal.” The Deal was a simple description of what was required to have a successful career at Avon, and what parts the Associate and Avon needed to play (see Figure 1.1). The Deal made clear EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 6 Best Practices in Talent Management Potential 2 levels in 6 years 20% Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 75th Development investment: • 2x average Hi Po Program: Consider Global Move: Yes Special Projects: Yes Compensation targets: • Base 60th, Bonus 90th Development investment: • 5x average Hi Po Program: Yes Global Move: Yes Special Projects: Yes Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 50th Development investment: • .75x average Hi Po Program: No Global Move: No Special Projects: No Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 50th Development investment: • Average Hi Po Program: No Global Move: Consider Special Projects: Yes Compensation targets: • Base 60th, Bonus 60th Development investment: • 2x average Hi Po Program: Consider Global Move: Yes Special Projects: Yes Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus — NONE Development investment: • None without TM approval Hi Po Program: No Global Move: No Special Projects: No Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 40th Development investment: • Average Hi Po Program: No Global Move: No Special Projects: No Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 40th Development investment: • Average Hi Po Program: No Global Move: No Special Projects: Consider High 20% Compensation targets: • Base 50th, Bonus 75th Development investment: • 1.5x average Hi Po Program: No Global Move: No Special Projects: Yes Mid 60% Performance Over Time 1 level in 2 years 30% Low 20% 24+ months 50% FIGURE 1.1. Talent Investment Matrix that every Associate had to deliver results, display proper leadership behaviors, know our unique business, and take advantage of development experiences if they hoped to move forward in the organization. ■ Development Courses: Avon acknowledged the unspoken but obvious fact about participating in leadership or functional training courses—of course you’re being observed! We believed it was important for participants to understand that we were investing in their future and that monitoring that investment was critical. The larger investment that we made, the more explicitly we made the disclosure. For our Accelerated Development Process (a two-year high-potential development process offered to the top 10 percent of VPs), we let them know that they were now “on Broadway.” The lights would be hotter and the critics would be less forgiving. They knew that we would help each of them to be a great actor, but that their successes and failures would be more public and have greater consequences. ■ Performance Reviews: Switching from a 3-point scale to a 5-point scale provided additional clarity to participants about their actual progress, as did clarifying the scale definitions. Associates were informed about what performance EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 7 conversations their managers should be having with them and when. The recommended distribution of ratings across the scale was widely communicated. FROM COMPLEX TO SIMPLE One of the most important changes made in Avon’s talent practices was the radical simplification of every process. We believed that traditional talent processes would work (that is, grow better talent, faster) if they were effectively executed. However, we understood from our experience and a plethora of research (Hunter, Schmidt, & Judiesch, 1990) that most talent practices were very complex without that complexity adding any significant value. This level of complexity caused managers to avoid using those tools, and so talent wasn’t grown at the pace or quality that companies required. We committed ourselves to radically simplifying every talent process and ensuring that any complexity in those processes was balanced by an equal amount of value (as perceived by managers). Making this work was easier than we had anticipated. As the TM team designed each process, we would start literally with a blank sheet of paper and an open mind. We would set aside our hard-earned knowledge about the “right” way to design these processes and instead ask ourselves these questions: 1. What is the fundamental business benefit that this talent process is trying to achieve? 2. What is the simplest possible way to achieve that benefit? 3. Can we add value to the process that would make it easier for managers to make smarter people decisions? Using just those three questions, it was amazing how many steps and “bells and whistles” fell away from the existing processes. The two examples below provide helpful illustration. Performance Management Aligning Associates with the turnaround goals of the business and ensuring they were fairly evaluated was at the foundation of the business turnaround. As we entered the turnaround, the company had a complex ten-page performance management form with understandably low participation rates. Many Associates had not had a performance review in three, four, or even five years. It would have been impossible to align Associates with the vital few turnaround goals using that tool and process. ■ The business benefit: We stated that the fundamental benefit of performance goals and reviews is that they aligned Associates with business goals and caused Associates to work toward those goals with the expectation of fair rewards. ■ The simplest path: It seemed obvious that the simplest way of achieving the business goal was simply to have managers tell their Associates what their goals were. It was simple and the value to managers outweighed any complexity. After taking EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 8 Best Practices in Talent Management that very small step forward, we literally advanced at the same pace, taking incrementally small steps forward in the design process. At each step, we would ask ourselves, does this step add more value to managers than it does complexity? As long as it did, we added the additional design element. When that complexity/value curve started to level (see Figure 1.2), we very carefully weighed adding any additional elements. And, when we couldn’t justify that adding another unit of complexity would add another unit of value, we stopped. What went away as the design process progressed? Just a few examples would include: ■ Goal labels (highly valued, star performer, etc.), which added no value (in fact blurred transparency!) but did add complexity. ■ Individual rating of goals, which implied a false precision in the benefit of each goal and encouraged Associates to game the system. ■ Behavioral ratings, which were replaced with a focus on behaviors that would help achieve the current goals. The output was a one-page form with spaces for listing the goal, the metric, and the outcome. A maximum of four goals was allowed. Two behaviors that supported achievement of the current goal could be listed but were not formally rated. As a result, participation reached nearly 100 percent, and line managers actually thanked the talent team for creating a simple performance management process! ■ Adding Additional Value: In this process, we didn’t find opportunities to add more value than was achieved through simplification alone. Working Together to Help You Create a Great Career at Avon Grow Avon Lead Avon Know Avon Develop Through Experiences Your Role Achieve Results for Our Representatives Lead Our Associates Understand Direct Selling Take on Critical Career Experiences Avon’s Role Provide Clear Performance Expectations; Let You Know Where You Stand Provide Feedback on Your Leadership Skills Provide Training and Exposure Provide the Right Assignments and Experiences FIGURE 1.2. The Avon Deal (Example) EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 9 Engagement Survey When the turnaround began, no global process for understanding or acting on Associate engagement issues existed. Select regions or departments made efforts of varying effectiveness, but there was no integrated focus on consistent measurement and improvement of engagement. In designing the engagement survey process, we applied the same three questions: ■ The business benefit: We accepted the substantial research that showed a correlation (and some that showed causation) between increasing engagement and increasing various business metrics. In addition, we felt that the ability to measure managers’ effectiveness through engagement levels and changes would provide an opportunity for driving accountability around this issue. As with performance management, we knew that managers would use this tool if we could make it simple and, ideally, if we could show that it would allow them to more effectively manage their teams. ■ The simple path: There were two goals established around simplicity. One goal was to understand as much of what drove engagement as possible, while asking the least number of questions. The second goal was to write the questions as simply as possible, so that if managers needed to improve the score on a question, their options for action would be relatively obvious. The final version of the survey had forty-five questions, which explained 68 percent of the variance in engagement. The questions were quite simple, which had some value in itself, but their true value was multiplied tenfold by the actions described below. ■ Adding additional value: We were confident that, if managers took the “right” actions to improve their engagement results, not only would the next year ’s scores increase, but the business would benefit from the incremental improvement. The challenge was to determine and simply communicate to the manager what the “right” actions were. Working with our external survey provider, we developed a statistical equation model (SEM) that became the “engine” to produce those answers. The SEM allowed us to understand the power of each engagement dimension (for example, Immediate Manager, Empowerment, Senior Management) to increase engagement, and to express that power in an easy-to-understand statement. For example, we could determine that the relationship between the Immediate Manager dimension and overall engagement was 2:1. This meant that for every two percentage points a manager could increase his or her Immediate Manager dimension score, the overall engagement result would increase by one percentage point. Even better, this model allowed us to tell every manager receiving a report the specific three or four questions that were the key drivers of engagement for his or her group. No longer would managers mistakenly look at the top-ten or bottom-ten questions to guess at which issues needed attention. We could tell them exactly where to focus their EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 10 Best Practices in Talent Management efforts. The list of these questions on page five of the survey report essentially reduced a manager’s effort to understand his or her survey results to just reading one page. FROM EGALITARIAN TO DIFFERENTIATED A critical step in supporting Avon’s turnaround was determining the quality of talent we had across the business—an outcome made much easier with transparent processes and conversations. Once we understood our talent inventory, we made a broad and explicit shift to differentiate our investment in talent. While we would still invest in the development of every Associate, we would more effectively match the level of that investment with the expected return. We also differentiated leaders’ experiences to ensure that our highest potential leaders were very engaged, very challenged, and very tied to our company. We made the shift to differentiation in a number of ways, including: Communication to Leadership Teams At the start of the turnaround process, presentations were made to each of the regional leadership teams to explain the shift in talent philosophy. The chart below (see Figure 1.3) helped to emphasize that we were serious about differentiation, could be relatively specific about what it meant and how we planned to apply it. Showing the differentiation on our new Performance and Potential matrix also let leaders know that accurately assessing talent on this tool was critical to our making the right talent investments. Stop Value Added Caution Continue Effort /Complexity Added FIGURE 1.3. The Value/Complexity Curve EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 11 A Few Big Bets A key plank in our philosophy was that we believed in placing a “few big bets” on a small number of leaders. This approach was informed by the research showing the vastly superior performance of the top 5 to 10 percent of a specific population and by the belief that flawless execution of well-known high-potential development tactics would rapidly accelerate development.2 With limited funds to spend, we needed to make a decision about what talent bets would truly pay off. Our monetary investment in our highest-potential leaders was five to ten times what we would invest in an average performer. This investment would include training, coaching, and incentive compensation, but we also invested the highly valuable time of our CEO, executive team, and board members. Our highest-potential leaders would often have an audience with these executives on a regular basis. Tools and Processes Our new talent review process and performance review process also emphasized our differentiation philosophy. Our new 5-point performance scale came with a recommended distribution that assumed 15 percent of our leaders would fail to meet some of their goals during the year. We believed that if goals were set at an appropriately challenging level, this was a very reasonable expectation. As a consequence, we saw marginal performers, who typically could have limped along for years with an average rating, receive the appropriate attention to either improve their performance or move out of the business. Our performance and potential grid (3 by 3) also had recommended distributions, but we found over time that the grid definitions actually better served our differentiation goals. After initially rating leaders as having higher potential (the ability to move a certain number of levels over a certain period of time), over time, managers saw that the movement they predicted didn’t occur and those with more potential to move became a smaller, more differentiated group. We also asked managers to “stack rank” Box 6, which contained average performers who were not likely to move a level in the next twenty-four months. This process helped to differentiate “solid average” performers from those who were probably below average and possibly blocking others’ career movement. FROM EPISODIC TO DISCIPLINED As with many companies, Avon had plenty of well intentioned but very busy managers. Processes like talent reviews, which were administratively complex and difficult to understand, were not going to inspire the typical manager to reorder her priority list. By greatly simplifying these processes, we had removed one barrier to effectiveness, but we hadn’t actually moved the process forward. We still needed to build organizational EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 12 Best Practices in Talent Management discipline around the execution of these simple new processes. We did that in a number of ways: ■ Consistent global tools and processes: Many parts of the organization had created their own tools for activities like performance management or individual development. The corporate talent management function was not empowered to push for global consistency, and consequently there was not a common approach to build Avon talent. This changed with a shift to global consistency that was championed by the SVP HR. While all talent practices would now be designed by the corporate TM group, each still had to be vetted with the HR leaders of each geographic region and functional discipline. As a final part of the design process, adjustments were made to tools and processes to ensure they met needs around the world. ■ Adding talent management structure globally: We created the role of “regional talent management leader,” a manager- or director-level role responsible for the local implementation of the global processes. Five of these positions were created—one in each key geographic region—and the improved process discipline can be credited to them and their HR leaders. Regular meetings and calls between regional leaders and the corporate TM group helped ensure great dialogue and consistent improvements in the processes. ■ A committed CEO: Our CEO, Andrea Jung, showed herself to be a tremendous supporter of effective talent processes. Both through her role modeling (conducting performance reviews and setting clear goals for her team) and instilling process discipline (she held formal talent review meetings with each direct report and an executive committee talent calibration meeting twice each year), she signaled that these processes had value. This new level of discipline was an incredibly strong lever in our ability to assess and develop our talent. By holding talent processes every six months, we were able to drive transparency around talent issues on a regular basis and instill accountability to take action on issues before the next cycle. FROM EMOTIONAL TO FACTUAL Avon was a company with genuine, heart-felt concern for its Associates and an organization in which strong relationships were built over a lifetime of employment. As the organization grew, a leader ’s personal knowledge of other Associates’ performance or development needs often served as a key factor in determining talent movement. While in many cases a leader ’s individual knowledge was relatively accurate, it’s likely that a more calibrated point of view or additional quantitative facts may have allowed a richer discussion or more confidence in decision making. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 13 The TM team worked to inject more fact-based decision making into talent discussions. Some of those facts were qualitative and others quantitative, but as a whole, they allowed a more complete discussion of an individual’s performance and potential. ■ Qualitative facts added: Additional qualitative facts were found everywhere from talent reviews to leadership and functional courses. In talent reviews, calibration discussions were added at each level so that individual managers could justify individual potential ratings to their peers. Those ratings might also be reviewed an additional time at the next level. Regional talent management leaders would facilitate many of those meetings to help leaders have complete and honest discussions, helping to ensure that the qualitative data was accurate. Additional qualitative data was also added from a leader ’s participation in leadership or functional development programs. Senior line managers would sponsor those programs, frequently attending the entire one-, two-, or three-week process. Those managers would then bring rich observations to the talent discussions about an individual’s performance in those classes. ■ Quantitative facts added: Two of the new tools discussed above, the 360 and the engagement survey, provided quantitative facts that helped Avon assess talent. Progress against engagement goals or individual behavior improvement (or lack of it) was often a key indicator of readiness for additional development. FROM MEANINGLESS TO CONSEQUENTIAL Injecting managerial accountability for talent practices was a key factor in their effectiveness. Prior to the turnaround, accountability for those practices did not exist, with some managers taking personal responsibility to implement them and others doing very little. In creating the new talent practices, we tried to inject accountability into each one, answering that critical question, “Why should I do this”? ■ Monetary accountability: Varying a leader ’s pay for successfully or unsuccessfully managing talent is a dream of many HR and compensation leaders. We chose to use that lever in a very targeted way when we applied it to engagement survey improvement. The executive team believed that the survey provided a strong enough measure of a manager’s focus on people issues that they could be held accountable for its improvement. The executive committee established year-overyear improvement in engagement scores as a goal in every VP’s performance plan. ■ Associate-led accountability: To encourage the timely completion of the performance management process steps, we empowered Associates to hold their managers accountable. A memo was sent to every Associate at the beginning of each EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 14 Best Practices in Talent Management year informing them of the specific action steps and corresponding dates their managers should be taking to set goals. A similar note was sent for mid-year and end-of-year reviews. The notes asked the Associates to let their local HR leaders know if those steps weren’t occurring. ■ CEO-led accountability: Every six months each executive team member would meet to present his or her talent review to the CEO. Actions promised at the last meeting were reviewed and progress noted. Leaders knew that promises were being tracked and reviewed, and that progress would need to be shown at the next meeting. While accountability was applied in many different ways, the common outcome was that leaders understood that focusing on talent during the turnaround (and after) mattered, and that they were responsible for getting it done. The progress made on talent issues was helped by the various factors discussed above, from a committed CEO and SVP HR to the urgency of a turnaround to the dramatic change in talent practices. But it would not have been possible without the desire of every manager at Avon to do the right thing. We started with a culture that valued every Associate, and we channeled that positive spirit using sound processes and unflinching discipline. We didn’t delude ourselves into thinking that those talent changes would have been possible without the Avon culture. THE RESULTS OF A TALENT TURNAROUND We described the six weaknesses in Avon’s talent practices at the beginning of this chapter. Over the initial turnaround period (twelve to eighteen months), we moved those talent processes: ■ From opaque to transparent: Leaders now know what’s required to be successful, how we’ll measure that, how we’ll help them, and the consequences of higher and lower performance. They know their performance ratings, their potential ratings, and how they can change each of those. ■ From egalitarian to differentiated: We actively differentiated levels of Avon talent and provided each level with the appropriate experience. Our highest-potential leaders understand how we feel about them, and they see a commensurate investment. Our lower-performing leaders get the attention they need. ■ From complex to simple: Managers now do the right thing for their Associates both because we’ve lowered the barriers we previously built and because we’ve helped them with value-added tools and information. ■ From episodic to disciplined: Processes now happen on schedule and consistently around the world. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Avon Products, Inc. 15 ■ From emotional to factual: Talent decisions are made with an additional layer of qualitative and quantitative information drawn from across many different leader experiences. ■ From meaningless to consequential: Leaders know that they must build talent the Avon way for both their short- and long-term success. MEASURING THE TALENT TURNAROUND’S SUCCESS The specific talent practices we targeted have seen significant improvements in effectiveness. Ratings of Immediate Manager (including items such as clear goal setting, frequent feedback, and development planning) have increased up to 17 percent, with directors and vice presidents giving their immediate managers nearly a 90 percent approval rating. The ratings of “people effectiveness” (which captures many HR and talent practices) increased up to 16 percent, including strong gains on questions related to dealing appropriately with low performers and holding leaders accountable for their results. More transparency has allowed faster movement of talent into key markets. Simpler processes have allowed us to accelerate the development of leaders. Holding leaders accountable for their behaviors has improved the work experience for Associates around the world. While these changes were hard-fought and we believe created much more effective processes, a more important set of metrics exists. Avon has achieved all of its expense savings goals since the start of the turnaround and has recently reinforced its commitments to even greater expense reductions. Even with this lower cost base and 10 percent fewer Associates, Avon has grown from revenues of $8B in 2005 to nearly $11B in projected 2009 revenues while delivering strong single-digit earnings growth. We can’t say with certainty that our new talent practices contributed to either those cost savings or our revenue increases. We are confident, however, that the talent practices now in place will deliver better leaders, faster, to help Avon meet its business goals. REFERENCES Effron, M., Greenslade, S., & Salob, M. (2005, September). Growing great leaders: Does it really matter? Human Resource Planning Journal, 28(3), 18–23. Goldsmith, M. (2006). Try feed forward instead of feedback. In M. Goldsmith & L. Lyons, Coaching for Leadership (pp. 45–49). San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F.L., & Judiesch, M.K. (1990). Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 28–42. Jones, C. (1986). Programming productivity. New York: McGraw-Hill. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 16 Best Practices in Talent Management Marc Effron helps companies build better talent, faster. As a talent management leader, Effron has worked for, and consulted to, some of the world’s largest and most successful companies, including Bank of America, Citigroup, Philips Electronics, Reliance Industries (India), and Alcoa. He applies a simplicity-based approach to building leaders, which emphasizes transparency and managerial accountability. Effron’s recent experience includes serving as vice president, Global Talent Management, for Avon Products and as the global practice leader for Leadership Consulting at Hewitt Associates. At Hewitt, Effron created the Top Companies for Leaders study, which is now an annual cover story in Fortune magazine. He was also senior vice president, leadership development, at Bank of America and held other corporate and consulting positions. Effron’s latest book is One Page Talent Management: How to Build Better Leaders, Faster (Harvard Business Press, 2010) with co-author Miriam Ort. He has co-authored two books on leadership, written chapters in eight edited books, and is a frequent speaker at industry events. He is the founder of the New Talent Management Network, the world’s largest organization for talent management professionals. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to CHAPTER 2 BANK OF AMERICA BRIAN FISHEL AND JAY CONGER A comprehensive, multi-phased executive on-boarding program that leverages multiple sources of feedback, coaching, and leadership and cultural competencies. ■ ■ ■ Introduction ■ Company Background ■ The Leadership Dilemma ■ The Need for On-Boarding Interventions at the Executive Leadership Level Leadership Development Activities for Executive Leaders ■ The Design Assumptions Underlying the Bank of America’s Executive On-Boarding Process ■ The Bank of America’s Executive On-Boarding Program: Phases and Interventions Lessons for Designing On-Boarding for Executive Leaders 17 EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 18 Best Practices in Talent Management INTRODUCTION The Bank of America is the first true national retail banking brand in the United States. Over the last two decades, the bank has grown dramatically, primarily through acquisitions. It began as the small regional North Carolina National Bank and has become one of the largest companies in the world. As a financial institution, it serves individual consumers, small- and middle-market businesses, and large corporations with a full range of banking, investing, asset management, and other financial and risk-management products and services. Following the acquisition of Merrill Lynch on January 1, 2009, Bank of America is among the world’s leading wealth management companies and is a global leader in corporate and investment banking and trading across a broad range of asset classes serving corporations, governments, institutions, and individuals around the world. The company serves clients in more than 150 countries. In this chapter, we will describe the Bank of America’s executive on-boarding programs. Through a multi-phased approach supported by comprehensive feedback and coaching mechanisms, the bank’s programs have proven highly effective at both pre-empting leadership failures and for accelerating the knowledge and relationships necessary to step into an executive role. Our insights are drawn from an in-depth case analysis of these on-boarding programs at the Bank of America. Company Background The Bank of America example is one of the most comprehensive approaches to executive on-boarding in the field today. It also has a proven track record of seven years with successful results. For example, the Bank of America hired 196 externally hired executives between 2001 and May 2008 and had experienced twenty-four terminations—a new hire turnover rate of approximately 12 percent. This compares to estimates as high as 40 percent turnover in large corporations (Watkins, 2003). The Bank of America has tested its approaches out on a very large sample of on-boarded executives—over five hundred internal and external over the last seven years. Over the last decade, the Bank of America has been actively involved in acquisitions as well as organic growth. As a result, the organization must annually on-board a significant number of executives— both externally and internally sourced. This demand has created many opportunities to learn about the efficacy of various executive on-boarding interventions. In addition, the Bank of America’s on-boarding program is expressly designed to help new executives learn to be facile at navigating the bank’s large matrixed organization as well as building and leveraging networks of relationships for career success and for implementing company initiatives. These same demands are common in most large corporations today. We feel that this particular case holds lessons that readers in a wide range of organizations will therefore find useful. The Leadership Dilemma The first-time executive leader faces three dilemmas as he or she steps into a new role. In a brief period of time, the leader must gain mastery over a complex and demanding role. EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to Bank of America 19 The learning demands are often the most pronounced in a manager’s career. Second, expectations are high. It is assumed that the incoming executive already has the seasoning to lead in the new situation. After all, most executives have already spent years in managerial roles beforehand. As a result, there is little developmental feedback for those at the top of organizations. These two challenges produce the third dilemma. The probability of the incoming executive’s derailment is high. Complex new role demands combined with a lack of developmental support can produce a “perfect storm” in terms of failure on the job. As can easily be imagined, the price of leadership failures in the executive ranks is very costly for any organization. Beyond the direct costs of on-the-job development, severance, and recruitment, there are more significant costs to the organization, such as stalled organizational initiatives, loss of business knowledge, damage to customer and staff relationships, dampened employee morale, and lost opportunities. In addition, there are the costs of recruiting a replacement as well as the replacement’s time in gaining mastery of the job and setting his or her own agenda. Given these high costs, there is a tremendous need for developmental interventions that place an emphasis on pre-empting failures in senior leadership roles. While some organizations have developed formal on-boarding interventions, the typical approach tends to be quite limited in scope and does little to effectively on-board an executive leader. Most are simple orientation programs offering an opportunity to network with the CEO and the executive team. They may also provide some form of overview of the corporation, its financials, and its activities. A handful of organizations such as General Electric and Toyota do have more sophisticated on-boarding programs at the executive and general manager level (Fulmer & Conger, 2003), but such programs are very rare in the corporate world. Instead interventions to preempt leadership derailments tend to be dependent on performance appraisals and talent management practices. The underlying premise is that failures at the executive level can best be avoided through continuous formal performance feedback to a manager and through the careful selection of jobs and bosses over the life span of a manager ’s career (McCall, 1988). While we share this view, we also believe that developmental interventions focused solely on the transition to the executive role are a necessity. Companies such as General Electric and PepsiCo have long designed their leadership education programs around career transitions, especially at executive levels (Conger & Benjamin, 1999). In other words, a comprehensive on-boarding program at the executive level has an essential place in any organization’s portfolio of leadership development initiatives. The Need for On-Boarding Interventions at the Executive Leadership Level The transition from line management to an executive role is a significant jump in terms of scale and complexity of the job. Executives operate at the boundary between their organization and the external environment, whereas most managers are more EBSCOhost – printed on 10/25/2022 2:06 AM via STRAYER UNIVERSITY. All use subject to 20 Best Practices in Talent Management organizationally and functionally oriented. Executives must also formulate companywide strategies and play a critical role in their implementation—roles which they played to a far lesser degree prior to their executive appointments. Their decisions around staffing, rewards, measurement systems, and culture create a context that shapes the strategic choices made by managers and specialists throughout the organization. The executive role comes with enormous visibility and accountability. It is extremely demanding with little time for learning on the job. At the same time, developmental feedback and coaching for executives tend to be minimal. There are the occasional opportunities for formal coaching and executive education programs. But beyond these interventions, there is usually little else. In conclusion, for many managers, the promotion to an executive leadership role will be the steepest jump in their career history, and paradoxically the one with the least amount of transition support. The limited developmental support is a result of several factors. First, it is assumed by most organizations that their senior-most talent is well s…


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