Attached.Running head: LOGISTICS MANAGEMENTLogistics ManagementDetailsNameInstitutional AffiliationDate12LOGISTICS MANAGEMENTQuestion 1AnswerLean Thinking and JIT ConceptLean and JIT have the foundation in both United States and Japan, Japan is a smallcountry characterized by minimal resources and a large population, this has encouraged themto make use of the available and limited resources like labor, time and space. This state hashelped the Japanese to respect each other and hence live and work together. This harmonicculture reduces confrontations and thus promoting the best possible human relationship.Most of the Japanese firms also maintain a “joint responsibility,” this is done betweenmanagement and workers. This culture strengthens the fundamental belief of lean and JIT,which is characterized by minimum waste, continuous improvement, and respect for allworkers where workers are equally treated; through this, workers respect the managementand therefore follows orders without a mistake (Poppendieck et al., 2003).Toyota Motor Corporation developed this notion in the mid-1970s, and many firmsrefer to lean and JIT as the Toyota system. The emphasis was laid on low wastage ofmaterials, labor, and space. This was improved through the introduction of fines, whichfurther led to the elimination of waste, thereby increasing productivity and yield. Throughthis concept, Toyota managed to reduce production time from fifteen days to one day.This concept was used in the United States by Henry Ford’s Highland Park plant in1924, and later on, adopted by River Rouge in mass production of Model T parts just-intime for assembly. This station pulled work forward just-in-time to the next station. Over ahundred freight cars were daily unloaded with materials following fabrication, subassembly,final assembly, and back to the freight cars. This cycle took twenty-one days at Henry Ford’s3LOGISTICS MANAGEMENTHighland Park plant while at River Rouge, the sequence only took four days (Furlan et al.,2011).The U.S. manufacturers held this production until the early 1980s since it was dictatedthe economics of scale of mass production, standard designs, and mass market. Theproduction system shifted due to the development of the Toyota production system.This concept of JIT set principles to firms where firms held little or no inventoriesbeyond the required amount for immediate production and distribution. For instance, a firmonly received required raw materials like an hour before they are used in production, and theoutput is shipped to consumers as soon as the product is finished without holding any stockof either raw or finished goods.Lean manufacturing, as a philosophy, minimizes the number of resources. Thisinvolves eliminating all activities that do not add any value in production, design, and supplychain management, including customer relations. To increase mass production, theproducers in lean manufacturing employs highly skilled workers at all production levels, andthis compacts high volume production at a reduced cost per unit. There is also increasedquality as compared to the average mass production. In this case of manufacturing, rewardsare based on meeting the total cost.The main aim of JIT is to reduce w…

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