Assignment 3 Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. • Submissions without cover page will NOT be accepted. Assignment 3 Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week12 Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre via blackboard. Weight: 15 Marks CLO: Develop information technology skills for fast and effective means of communication to address business issues. (LO4.3) CLO: Apply different management and leadership styles for different situations (Lo 3.1) GUIDELINES FOR DOING ASSIGNMENTS We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind: the assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weight Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment and submit to your teacher. 1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the units on which they are based. (Please read chapters 10 and 12). Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order. 2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion. Make sure that: a) The answer is logical and coherent b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style. 3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underlining the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit. Wishing you all the best. Assignment Question Select any one of the public organisations you are familiar with and discuss how leadership plays a role in bringing smooth change in the organization and analyse the effectiveness of new technological applications adopted by it in dissemination of information to citizens and also the effectiveness of public service delivery. Public Administration: An Introduction Marc Holzer, PhD Dean and Board of Governors Professor School of Public Affairs and Administration Rutgers University – Newark, New Jersey Richard W. Schwester, PhD Associate Professor John Jay College of Criminal Justice The City University of New York (CUNY) ROUTLEDGE Routledge Taylor & Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK First published 2011 by M.E. Sharpe Published 2015 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Notices No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use of operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. While every effort was made to contact copyright holders of the materials printed here, we apologize for any inadvertent omissions. If acknowledgement is missing, it would be appreciated if the publisher were contacted so that this can be rectified in any future edition. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Holzer, Marc. Public administration : an introduction / by Marc Holzer and Richard W. Schwester. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–7656–2120–7 (pbk) 1. Public administration. 2. Public administration—Decision making. 3. Policy sciences. I. Schwester, Richard Wilmot, 1977– II. Title. JF1351.H65 2011 351—dc22 2010040045 About the Authors Marc Holzer Dean Holzer (MPA, PhD University of Michigan) is Dean of the School of Public Affairs and Administration, and Board of Governors Professor of Public Affairs and Administration, at Rutgers University’s Newark Campus. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and a Past President of the American Society of Public Administration. Since 1975, he has directed the National Center for Public Performance, and he is the founder and editor-in-chief of the journals Public Performance and Management Review and Public Voices, and is the co-founder/co-editor of the Chinese Public Administration Review. He has also recently founded the Public Performance Measurement and Reporting Network. His research, service, and teaching has been honored by awards from the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, the American Society of Public Administration, and the Chinese Public Administration Society. He has published well over one hundred books, monographs, chapters and articles. Richard W. Schwester Professor Schwester (MA, PhD Rutgers University) is an Associate Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York. His research interests include the use of technology in government, e-government, prison privatization, critical incidents, and inter-local shared services. Some of Professor Schwester’s most recent work appears in Public Budgeting and Finance, Public Performance and Management Review, Public Administration Quarterly, International Journal of Public Administration, and the International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior. Public Administration: An Introduction iii PREFACE We have written a textbook that is distinct from the dozens of public administration texts now in the academic marketplace. Our vision is a unique blend of substance and style—a text that is both informative and enlivening, capturing the evolving nature of the field. A unique aspect of this volume vis-à-vis other textbooks is the extensive use of visuals. Artwork depicts bureaucratic issues, reinforcing each chapter’s themes and creating an informative and aesthetically engaging textbook. Charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations add dimensions to the text’s overviews of public administration. Of course, this text covers the traditional, essential elements of public administration such as organizational theory, human resource management, leadership, program evaluation, budgeting, and the politics of public administration. But it strives to do so in a contemporary way, addressing, for example, the changing role of intergovernmental relations in Chapter 6, including the federalist structure as well as interlocal shared services and regional consolidation initiatives. Public performance is treated as an indispensable subfield of public administration. Chapter 7 is devoted to performance-related topics such as knowledge sharing and training, total quality management, performance measurement, and the social aspects of organizational performance. Although these topics may be present throughout traditional texts, they are usually scattered over several chapters, underemphasizing the importance of public performance. Given the current economic climate, a focus on efficiency and effectiveness is increasingly important in the field of public administration. The emergence of e-government and the growing role of technology in public administration are introduced in Chapter 12. Technology has and will continue to change the way we interact and transact business with government on a daily basis. This chapter delves into emerging technologies of knowledge management, Geospatial Information Systems (GIS), the use of Internet applications as participatory and service delivery media, 311 call centers, and computer mapping programs. As a departure from the more orthodox model typical of other texts, Chapter 13 of this book examines the field of public administration and public service through the lens of popular culture. Countering the all-too-common image of bumbling bureaucrats, this chapter demonstrates that dedicated public servants add a great deal of value to the services government has promised its citizens. This chapter also provides helpful resources for people interested in engaging with government and professional networks that address critical quality-of-life issues. iv PREFACE Each chapter is complemented by key terms and supplementary readings. Beyond those “standard” resources that are present in any introductory text, video cases and simulations offer a gateway to engaging students, encouraging them to immerse themselves in virtual problem solving experiences—testing theory and skills through real-time practical applications. Students are challenged to evaluate the actions and decisions of public administrators and elected officials based on the theoretical models and best practices provided in the specific chapter. These cases focus on single and multisector issues that allow for the best collaborative thinking of those students evaluating the problem. The simulations, also tailored to each chapter topic, offer students a place to apply theory to practice in a decisionmaking role rather than in an evaluative one as is with the case studies. Students will deal with issues related to unemployment, budgeting, the environment, crime, and education. These computer- and Internet-based learning tools allow students to test their decision-making skills and to evaluate the results of those decisions in a pure learning environment—applying theory to practice. All of the electronic resources are free to the user—avoiding additional costs to students and representing a sample of similarly accessible resources on the Web, YouTube, and other media outlets. This text, then, is very much a dynamic learning system rather than a static volume. We expect that it will not only enliven the teaching of public administration but will markedly improve the learning experience and help motivate students of public service to become problem-solving public servants. Our thanks to the team that helped us construct this text and whose research and critiques improved it immensely: Dan Bromberg, Peter Hoontis, Iryna Illiash, Jyldyz Kasymova, Anna Bolette Lind-Valdan, Emily Michaud, Yetunde Odugbesan, and Ginger Swiston. This book could not have been completed without the assistance of a number of dedicated individuals. In particular, we wish to thank Harry Briggs, Elizabeth Granda, Angela Piliouras, Stacey Victor, and Jim Wright. Public Administration: An Introduction v Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society . . . . . . . . 2 Government Requires Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What Do We Get for All of These Resources? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 How Government Is Organized to Deliver Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 How Government Serves Others. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What, Then, Is Public Administration?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 CHAPTER 2 Organizational Theory and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Theories of Managerial Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Classical Management Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Neo-Classical School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 The Human Side of Organizational Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Contemporary Organizational Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Structural Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Systems Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 W. Edwards Deming and Japanese Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Organizational Economic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 National Performance Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 CHAPTER 3 Managing Human Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Human Resources Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Productive Human Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Cultivating and Maintaining a High-Quality Diverse Workforce . . . . . . . 91 Creating a Quality Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 CHAPTER 4 Public Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 How Decisions Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 The Nature of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Theoretical Models of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Dysfunctions in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Public Administration: An Introduction vii References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 CHAPTER 5 Politics and Public Administration . . . . 172 The Intersection of Politics and Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Reform and Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 The Reality of Bureaucratic Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Checking Bureaucratic Discretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Case Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 CHAPTER 6 Intergovernmental Relations . . . . . . . . . . 198 The Layers of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The Idea of Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Interlocal Shared Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Improving Performance via Intragovernmental and Intergovernmental Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 7 Public Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Improving Government Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 The Importance of Knowledge Sharing and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Total Quality Management: Customer Focus and Responsive Public Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Issues in Organizational Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Measuring Performance to Improve Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 The Role of Privatization in Government Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 CHAPTER 8 Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 What is Program Evaluation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 How to Collect Empirical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Conducting Evaluations and the Importance of Stakeholders . . . . . . . 266 Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 CHAPTER 9 Public Budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Budgeting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Public Administration: An Introduction ix The Federal Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Types of Budgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Where Do Governments Get This Money? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Theories of Budgeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 CHAPTER 10 Public-Sector Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Leading People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Management Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Prevailing Leadership Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Types of Leadership Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 CHAPTER 11 Ethics and Public Administration . . . . . 348 Administrative Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 What Are Ethics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Bureaucracy and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Formal Rules and Bureaucratic Discretion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 x TABLE OF CONTENTS References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 CHAPTER 12 Technology and Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 High Tech Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Technology Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 The Network and Its Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Knowledge Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 The Basics: Database Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Convergence and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 The Connected Society: Trends and Opportunities Facing Public Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 CHAPTER 13 Public Service and Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Public Servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 The Image of the Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 The Real Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Capturing the Attention of Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Public Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Public Administration: An Introduction xi Networks and Professional Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 CHAPTER 14 The Future of Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 The Evolution of Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Governance Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Citizen Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Globalization: The Internationalization of Public Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 E-Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 xii TABLE OF CONTENTS Public Administration: An Introduction Public Administration: An Introduction xiii CHAPTER 1 Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society This chapter introduces the reader to the foundational elements of government and public administration. It reviews many of the essential characteristics of government, such as revenue collection, government expenditures, and government workforce. It also presents an overview of the services that government provides and how those services affect citizens on a daily basis. Furthermore, this chapter constructs a working definition of public administration and discusses key concepts that are essential to the field. 2 CHAPTER 1 “The care of human life and happiness… “Management is the science of which is the first and only legitimate object organizations are but experiments.” of good government.” JOHN CONSTABLE THOMAS JEFFERSON English Romantic Painter Third President of the United States (1776-1837) (1743–1846) Environmental Police Unit Officers with the Department of Sanitation of New York take precautions when dealing with hazardous waste. Postal Workers Mural Public Administration: An Indispensible Part of Society 3 GOVERNMENT REQUIRES RESOURCES There is no question that government spends a great deal of money. And theoretically—just like any other organization—the government must make money before it can spend money. So, where does government get its money and how does it spend it? How does this process affect people on a daily basis? These are just some of the questions we will answer in this introductory chapter. Let’s start with the basics. Like all organizations, the government typically must take in money before expending it. In rare situations, government can spend money it did not collect; that will be discussed in Chapter 9, “Public Budgeting.” Unlike organizations in the private or nonprofit sectors, government has the power to tax. Taxation, one of the federal government’s constitutional rights under the founding documents of the United States, is necessary to support the three branches of government, particularly the executive branch with its wide array of functions. State constitutions extend that taxing “What made you power to states, which then authorize counties, cities, choose this career towns, villages, and special districts to levy taxes. is what made me go into politics—a chance to serve, to make a difference. It is not just a job. It is a vocation.” Governments are considered sovereign bodies, holding the highest authority in a specific region; therefore, government is granted unique powers under which it may implement its authority. Taxation is one of those unique powers. Unlike companies, which make money by selling a product or a service, the government takes in funds by taxing its citTONY BLAIR izenry. These taxes are collected by local, state, and federal Prime Minister of GreatBritain agencies and pay for a broad range of services that meet citizens’ daily needs. The nature of these needs will be discussed throughout this chapter, but first we will sketch out the amount of money government spends on a yearly basis. In 2007 (the latest year for which the actual state and local spending figures were available at the time this book was written) the federal, state, and local governments in the United States spent over $4 trillion. Federal spending represented about 63 percent of all spending by governments. The U.S. federal government spent about $2.7 trillion, and state and local governments spent about $1.6 trillion. To understand the impact that government spending has on the economy of the United States, it is sometimes helpful to use economic terms. One often-used term for gauging the nation’s economy is the gross domestic product (GDP). The GDP is a measure based on the amount of goods and services produced within the borders of the United States. There are numerous ways to measure this figure, but the most straightforward is simply to add together the total amount of money spent on pro- 4 CHAPTER 1 Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 5 U.S. Supreme Court Department of Justice Department of the Interior Department of Labor Department of Defense Independant Establishments and Government Corporations Department of State Department of Education Department of Transportation Department of Energy Source: Washburn University School of Law, U.S. Federal Resources, https://ift.tt/BDpTRCJ. Department of Commerce Department of Agriculture Federal Judicial Center Drug Control Policy Trade Representative Department of Treasury Department of Health and Human Serv. Department of Veterans Affairs Department of Housing and Urban Dev. Sentencing Commission U.S. Tax Court Court of Military Appeals Science & Technology The White House Congr. Budget Office Court International Trade Environmental Quality OMB Technology Assesment Library of Congress U.S. Court of Appeals The President Executive Office of the President GPO GAO Judicial Branch Executive Branch The Constitution Legislative Branch FIGURE 1.1 – U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHART ducing these goods and services. Understandably, one may think that the GDP measures only the private sector’s economic activity; in reality, however, public sector activity makes up a large percentage of the GDP. Federal, state, and local government spending was approximately 32 percent of the U.S. GDP in 2007 (see FIGURE 1.2 – TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) State and Local Government Expenditure: $1591.1 Federal Government Outlays: $2730.2 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 200. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. FIGURE 1.3 – GOVERNMENT SPENDING AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) GDP of the United States (2007) in current dollars: $13,667.5 Government Spending = 32% of GDP: $4,321.3 $9,346.3 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 200. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. 6 CHAPTER 1 Figures 1.2 and 1.3). It is important to remember that government not only provides an array of services with the money it spends but that such spending contributes significantly to the health and stability of the nation’s economy. To spend trillions of dollars, governments need to take in as much money every year—a feat that is accomplished through both taxation and fee-based services. Among the various taxes government collects from its citizens is the sales tax, which is typically levied by states. Sales taxes are encountered at most retail stores when a good is sold to the final customer in a transaction. A majority of states do not tax food purchases, and many other goods and services such as medical care, landscaping, salon, and taxi and courier services are exempt from taxation in some states. In 2008 sales taxes ranged from zero in states such as New Hampshire and Alaska to 7.25 percent in California; county or local sales taxes often add to those taxes at the cash register. Other common levies—including the income tax, property tax, inheritance tax, and excise tax—are used to create the revenue needed to provide the public services that citizens expect and demand. In addition, tolls on roads, bridges, and tunnels are considered a direct tax for the use of integrated transportation networks. A large part of government funding at the federal level comes from employment taxes, FIGURE 1.4 – COMPOSITION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE AND RETIREMENT RECEIPTS, 2000–2007 Railroad retirement/pension fund: Railroad social security equivalent account: Trust Funds: $1.952.000 $2,309,000 Hospital Insurance: $184.908,000 Disability insurance (Off-Budget): $92,188,000 Trust funds (Off-Budget): $542,901,000 Total1: $824,258,000 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. Note: Unless otherwise noted, all receipts shown in this figure are trust funds and on-budget. 1 On-budget and off-budget. Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 7 which are directed toward specific social programs that generally provide support for citizens when they have reached the age of retirement or are disabled. Among the programs covered by payroll taxes are Social Security benefits and Medicaid and Medicare insurance. Employees also contribute to U.S. unemployment insurance and to the pension funds of the federal workforce. These revenue sources are collected and used in a FIGURE 1.5 – 2007 TOTAL GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) State and Local Government Non-Interest Receipts: $1,420.5 Federal Government Receipts: $2,568.2 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. FIGURE 1.6 – 2007 GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS BY SOURCE (IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Excise Taxes: $65,069 Other: $99,878 Individual Income Taxes: $1,163,472 Social Insurance and Retirement Receipts: $869,607 Corporation income Taxes: $370,243 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. 8 CHAPTER 1 different manner than other revenue sources: They are earmarked, or set aside, as trust funds for the benefit of those who paid in (see Figure 1.4). The money put in by users will be taken out by users when they are in need of various insurance programs. Government funds also come from fees. These fees make up a smaller portion of a government’s income and tend to be more significant on the state and local levels. Fees are charged for access to certain desirable locations, such as public beaches or state parks. Fees may also be charged for obtaining a driver’s license, a passport, or FIGURE 1.7 – 2008 U.S. MILITARY SPENDING VS. THE WORLD (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND % OF WORLD TOTAL) Latin America $39 3% Russia $70 5% Middle East/ N. Africa $82 5% Central/ Sub-Saharan South Asia Africa $30 $10 2% 1% East Asia / Austrailia $120 United States $711 48% 8% China $122 8% Europe $289 20% 2008 Total Military Spending: $1.473 Trillion Source: Global Issues. 2010. “World Military Spending.” https://ift.tt/MYCg1ac. Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 9 to get a building permit for an addition to a house or to build in a certain location. Figures 1.5 and 1.6 indicate the total extent of government revenue. What exactly does the public sector spend money on? A large portion of federal expenditures go toward defense and other international programs. In 2007 the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) had a budget of about $600 billion. Half of the entire world’s military expenditures are spent by the United States alone (see Figure 1.7). In comparison to other expenditures made by the federal government, DoD spending accounts for about 22 percent of the federal budget. Another large portion of the federal government’s spending goes toward the insurance programs mentioned earlier, such as Social Security and Medicare. Because the government is required by law to pay for such programs, they are often referred to as mandatory expenditures. In 2007 the federal government spent about $1 trillion on Social Security and Medicare. That accounts for almost 40 percent of the federal budget. In total, funds spent on defense, Social Security, and Medicare make up about 60 percent of all federal expenditures. Federal spending makes up about 65 percent of all government expenditures, with state and local governments accounting for the other 35 percent. In 2007 state and local government budgets in the United States exceeded $1.5 trillion—money used by government to provide a range of services its citizens access on a daily basis. This spending contributes significantly to the country’s economy and employment, and it allows government to provide selected services that would otherwise be challenging to provide on a private basis. Figure 1.8 shows a breakdown of all government spending. FIGURE 1.8 – 2007 TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES BY MAJOR CATEGORY (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Other Federal: $223.2 State and Local: $1,568.6 Net Interest: $259.5 Defense and International: $581.1 Federal Payments for Individuals (including Social Security and Medicare): $1688.8 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/wIDoOlH. 10 CHAPTER 1 The federal, state, and local governments in the United States employed about 23 million people in 2007. Millions of others were employed to fill public sector positions via contractual relationships with private organizations: management consultants, temporary workers, technicians, and the like. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) as of September 2007, this amounts to approximately 17 percent of all employed individuals in the United States, not including farm payroll (BLS 2007). According to Paul Light, the Paulette Goddard Professor of Public Service at New York University and the former director of Governmental Studies at the Brookings Institution, as of 2002 the number of people employed by federal contracts was about 8 million (Light 2003). This underscores the importance of government employment in relationship to the U.S. economy.” The federal government, while the largest single government employer, employs far fewer people than the combined state and local governments throughout the nation. In addition, over the past several decades, the federal labor force has been decreasing steadily, while the state and local labor forces have been increasing in size. In 1980, for example, the federal government employed more than 4.9 million people (military and civilian); nine years later, its ranks peaked at nearly 5.3 million employees. Since then, the federal government has been scaling back the size of its labor force. As a percentage of the U.S. workforce, it declined from about 5 percent in 1989 to 3 percent in 2007, meaning more than a million jobs were shed in less than 20 FIGURE 1.9 – GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION, 2007 Total U.S. Population (2007): 301,621,000 Government Employees = 7.8% of Total U.S. Population: 23,665,000 Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S. Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” https://ift.tt/iaXnfWg. Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 11 years. At the same time, state and local levels have been behaving in just the opposite manner. In 1980 state and local governments employed nearly 13.4 million people. This number increased to over 19 million in 2007, accounting for about 14 percent of the total U.S. workforce. Although state and local governments increased their labor force by about 6 million people over three decades, in comparison to the growth of the U.S. population, this number is not out of proportion, and as a percent of the total workforce it constitutes about 13 percent. Thus, total government employment (federal, state, local) has stayed somewhat consistent—on average—since 1980, representing about 17 percent of the total workforce, with a high in 1980 of 18.4 percent. It is now (as of 2007) about 16 percent of the entire workforce. Figure 1.9 summarizes personnel figures for local, state, and federal governments. Clearly, a significant portion of the U.S. workforce is employed by the government. FIGURE 1.10 – FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES BY FUNCTION, DECEMBER 2007 Other and Unallocable Libraries Other Education* Space Research & Technology Postal Service Nat Defense/International Relations Natural Resources Housing and Community Development Parks and Recreation Social Insurance Administration Hospitals Health Public Welfare Water Transport & Terminals AirTransportation Highways Correction Police Judicial and Legal Other Government Administration Financial Administration 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division Employment and Payroll. 2010. “Historical Data” https://ift.tt/tWFn2DK. *Includes Department of Education and the National Science Foundation, plus parts of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 12 CHAPTER 1 What do all of these people do? On the state and local levels it is more challenging to identify how the numbers break down exactly, but on the federal level we can classify employees by their designated function. Figure 1.10 illustrates that the two largest employee categories, by far, are National Security and the U.S Postal Service. What Do We Get for All of These Resources? Citizens of the United States come in contact with government on a daily basis—often without even realizing it. From the moment you wake up in the morning, government helps ensures your health, safety, and well-being. It continues to do so while you sleep. In the morning you expect to wake to your alarm clock rather than some pesky noise such as a lawnmower, construction, or a barking dog. Typically, you will not hear such noises because government helps to regulate such activities. In New York City, for example, construction activity is not allowed to begin until 7:00 a.m. Likewise, a citizen may not use equipment such as a lawnmower or a leaf blower before 7:00 a.m. Such policies go a long way toward fostering respect among neighbors. In addition to noise ordinances, thousands of other ordinances facilitate the creation and maintenance of a livable “And so, my fellow environment. They range from how citizens should deal Americans, ask not with waste removal to whether or not they may purchase what your country and use fireworks. Ordinances—enforced by public sercan do for you; ask vants—help to establish reasonable norms by which we what you can do conduct our daily activities. for your country.” Beyond municipal ordinances, broader laws and regulaJOHN F. KENNEDY tions help us function in our daily activities. The simple act 35th President of the United States of obeying a stop sign may seem commonplace—and sensible—but what might happen if we did not have laws in place that require us to drive in a certain manner? Government has codified these very basic rules of the road. We know that drivers must stop their vehicles when approaching a red light and slow down when approaching a yellow light. These rules allow traffic to flow in an organized manner. What about water consumption? It seems like second nature to turn on a water faucet and get a glass of cold drinkable water, or to request a glass of water with your meal while dining at a restaurant. Although we typically do not think about the cleanliness and safety of this water, it is clear that somebody must. That is why we rely on government. The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting a national standard for drinking water and ensuring that none of the 90 different types of banned contaminants taint our water system. In total, the United States has over 170,000 water systems and on average delivers about 100,000 gallons of water annually to each residence (EPA 2010). Most Americans Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 13 rarely think about the complexity of this infrastructure and the amount of support and control required to keep the supply of drinkable water safe and easily accessible. It is important to remember, though, that access to clean, safe water is not cheap; according to the United Nations (2010), nearly 20 percent of the world’s population does not benefit from having clean drinking water. The government not only establishes these ordinances, laws, and regulations but also serves as a major provider of services such as public education. From the moment you enter kindergarten until you graduate at the end of your senior year of high school, the U.S. education system provides the tools you need to become a responsible adult. Throughout the United States in any given year, there are about 50 million school-age children attending elementary, middle, or high schools—a total of 97,000 public schools. To maintain such an expansive system requires a great deal of pooled resources in the form of public sector budgets. While children are at school, adults are generally at work. Although we may rarely think twice about the dangers that might occur at the workplace, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does. This federal agency is charged with ensuring that any given workplace provides a safe and healthy environment for all its employees. Since OSHA’s creation in 1971, on-the-job injuries have decreased by 61 percent and fatalities by 44 percent. A decrease on such a large scale cannot happen without a great deal of planning and work. In 2006 OSHA inspected over 35,000 workplaces. In addition to the federal government, many state agencies conduct inspections, and an additional 58,000 were completed on the state level that same year. Although most of us are not concerned with work-related injuries on a daily basis, it is important to remember that one of the main reasons we can afford to be so complacent about workplace safety is the government’s vigilance in ensuring our protection. Water Tunnel Is Spectacular Feat of Engineering—and Hard Work Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani Mayor’s WINS Address, Sunday, August 16, 1998 (New York City, 1998) “New York City has always been a place where seemingly impossible things are made possible—in business, art, literature and so many other realms—because no other City can match the ambition, hard work, and perseverance of our people. This Thursday [August 13, 1998], these qualities were on full display in Central Park for the opening of the Third Water Tunnel—which represents the culmination of decades of hard work and sacrifice by thousands of New Yorkers.” 14 CHAPTER 1 There are literally thousands of additional programs, services, and interventions that government initiates and that we encounter every day. Some of the key public sector services are listed in the section that follows. Although we might not access many on a daily basis, the safety net they provide allows us to go about our daily routines. How Government Is Organized to Deliver Services The Interstate Highway System “Although the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944 authorized designation of a ‘National System of Interstate Highways,’ the legislation did not authorize an initiating program to build it. This act started the initial design of the system, but it was not until the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 that the system started to be constructed. Currently, the Interstate System is 46,876 miles long. The final estimate of the cost of the Interstate System was issued in 1991. It estimated that the total cost would be $128.9 billion, with a Federal share of $114.3 billion.” (Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, “Frequently Asked Questions,” https://ift.tt/nLV3xH1) Federal Housing Administration “The Federal Housing Administration, generally known as ‘FHA,’ is the largest government insurer of mortgages in the world. A part of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), FHA provides mortgage insurance on single-family, multifamily, manufactured homes and hospital loans made by FHAapproved lenders throughout the United States and its territories. While borrowers must meet certain requirements established by FHA to qualify for the insurance, lenders bear less risk because FHA will pay the lender if a homeowner defaults on his or her loan. FHA has insured over 37 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages since 1934. Currently, FHA has 5.2 million insured single-family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio.” (Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, “Federal Housing Administration Overview,” https://ift.tt/BZ9COcP) Consumer Protection “If you exercise your right to receive a free credit report, use the National Do Not Call Registry to block unwanted telemarketing calls, or refer to product warranties, care labels in your clothes, or stickers showing the energy costs of home appliances, you are taking advantage of laws enforced by the FTC’s [Federal Trade Commission’s] Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau of Consumer Protection works to protect consumers against unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices in the marketplace. The Bureau conducts investigations, sues companies and people who viPublic Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 15 olate the law, develops rules to protect consumers, and educates consumers and businesses about their rights and responsibilities. The Bureau also collects complaints about consumer fraud and identity theft and makes them available to law enforcement agencies across the country.” (Source: Federal Trade Commission, “About the Bureau of Consumer Protection,” https://ift.tt/KjCETB5) National Weather Service “The National Weather Service is a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA is an Operating Unit of the U.S. Department of Commerce…. The National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. NWS data and products form a national information database and infrastructure which can be used by other governmental agencies, the private sector, the public, and the global community.” (Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service, “About NOAA’s National Weather Service,” www.nws.noaa. gov/admin.php.) Federal Student Financial Aid Programs “Federal Student Aid’s core mission is to ensure that all eligible individuals benefit from federal financial assistance—grants, loans and work-study programs—for education beyond high school. The programs we administer comprise the nation’s largest source of student aid. Every year we provide more than $100 billion in new aid to nearly 14 million postsecondary students and their families. Our staff of 1,100 is based in 10 cities in addition to our Washington headquarters.” (Source: Federal Student Aid, “About Us,” https://ift.tt/w92xYG5) EXERCISE 1.1 Create a New Government (Simulation) Working as a team, create a new governing body for your university using the strategy established to create the Iraqi National Assembly as highlighted in the following simulation. Establish a list of the key principles upon which this new governance structure is based, and explain why each principle is important. Sarah Kavanagh and Javaid Khan, “A Good Government Is Hard to Build,” The New York Times: The Learning Network, March 30, 2005, https://ift.tt/RbSCuU6 16 CHAPTER 1 Food and Drug Safety Programs “FDA [the Food and Drug Administration] is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services and…is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health.” (Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Centers and Offices,” https://ift.tt/fMUNJ4n) Federal Emergency Response “FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain, and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards.” “FEMA has more than 3,700 full time employees. They work at FEMA headquarters in Washington D.C., at regional and area offices across the country, the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. FEMA also has nearly 4,000 standby disaster assistance employees who are available for deployment after disasters. Often FEMA works in partnership with other organizations that are part of the nation’s emergency management system. These partners include state and local emergency management agencies, 27 federal agencies and the American Red Cross.” (Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, “About FEMA,” https://ift.tt/YtGaMj7) AMTRAK “As the nation’s intercity passenger rail operator, Amtrak connects America in safer, greener and healthier ways. With 21,000 route miles in 46 states, the District of Columbia and three Canadian provinces, Amtrak operates more than 300 trains each day—at speeds up to 150 mph—to more than 500 destinations. Amtrak also is the operator of choice for state-supported corridor services in 15 states and for four commuter rail agencies.” (Source: AMTRAK, “Amtrak Information and Facts,” www.amtrak.com/ servlet/ContentServer/Page/1241256467960/1237608345018.) United States Post Office “The United States Postal Service delivers more mail to more addresses in a larger geographical area than any other post in the world. We deliver to more than 150 Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 17 million homes, businesses and Post Office boxes in every state, city, town and borough in this country. Everyone living in the U.S. and its territories has access to postal services and pays the same postage regardless of his or her location.” (Source: United States Postal Service, “Postal Facts 2010,” https://ift.tt/1BkutFV) Organizational Chart of Municipality—City of Burlington, New Jersey “The City of Burlington operates in accordance with the Mayor-Council form of government. The Mayor is the chief executive of the municipality, while the legislative powers of the City are exercised by the Common Council. The Common Council consists of seven members, three at-large Councilpersons and one from each of the four wards, who shall serve for a term of four years. Various boards, committees, and departments comprise other areas of the City’s government.” FIGURE 1.11 – CITY OF BURLINGTON ORGANIZATIONAL CHART CITIZENS GOVERNING BODY A D M I N I S T R A T I O N MRYOR COMMON COUNCIL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR MUNICIPAL CLERK PUBLIC SRFETY DEPT. PUBLIC RFFAIRS DEPT. LRW DEPT. ENGINEERING DEPT, HOUSING & COMMUNITY DEVT. DEPT. PUBLIC WORK DEPT. FINANCE DEPT. OFFICES Director Director Municipal Attorney Director Director Director CFO Director Municipal Court Tax Rsseesor Police Recreation Prosecutor Construction code Enforcement Public Works Div. Treasury Court Administration Municipal Court Judge Fire Chirtf Div. Public Relations [Events] Public Defender Planning & Zoning Water Utility Div. Revenue Fire Prevention Div. Health & Vital Statistics Special Counsel Landlord Registration Sewer & Drainage Div. Nuisance Inspection Public Bldgs. & Grounds Div. Animal Control City Boat Ramp Energy Mgmt. Historic Preservation Commission Communications Housing Programs & Grants Tr affic Maintenance Div. Governing Body Admin. Departments Divisions Recycling Source: City of Burlington, New Jersey, USA Website. 2008. “The Administration: City Government, Departments & Divisions Organization Chart.” https://ift.tt/A9fzoDT. 18 CHAPTER 1 How Government Serves Others It is clear that government affects us on a daily basis, but it is important to remember that government not only serves the individual; it lends its resources to a number of efforts that aid the common good. Government support for the not-for-profit sector is one example of the public sector promoting the common good. The not-for-profit sector or nonprofit sector is generally viewed as the charitable arm of American society. What differentiates it from the private sector? Unlike for-profit companies, organizations in the nonprofit sector are not driven to increase revenue by an economic bottom line. Rather, they are driven by a unique mission upon which all of their organizational programs and activities are focused. Nonprofit organizations typically try to limit their spending on administrative functions and use the bulk of their funding for mission-specific activities. According to the Urban Institute (2010), about 1.4 million nonprofit organizations account for 5.2 percent of the national GDP. Nonprofit organizations range widely in size and scope of activities. Some nonprofits provide arts, culture, education, envi“The call to service ronmental monitoring, health care, human services and seemingly is one of the endless lists of services that promote the common good. Not only highest callings do nonprofits give to the community, they also enable citizens to give of their time and energy to others. The Bureau of Labor Stayou will hear and tistics (2010) estimates that approximately 27 percent of adults your country (more than 60 million individuals) volunteered at a nonprofit orcan make.” ganization in 2009. To some degree, many people believe that LEE H. HAMILTON nonprofits hold society together. Former U.S. Congressman; How does this have anything to do with government? The Vice Chairman, 9/11 government supports the nonprofit sector in two primary Commission ways: First, it has created a special tax status for nonprofit organizations that allows them to operate outside of the typical tax structure. Second, government makes direct contributions to nonprofit organizations through grant funding for specific programs. The special tax status developed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for public charities—known as 501(c)(3)—provides nonprofit organizations with an exemption from paying federal income tax. It also ensures that all individuals who make contributions to such organizations can deduct those donations from their own income. To qualify as an exempt organization, nonprofits must follow certain rules. According to the guidelines listed on the IRS website, they must be organized specifically for an exempt purpose, as outlined in the following text: The exempt purposes set forth in section 501(c)(3) are charitable, religious, educational, scientific, literary, testing for public safety, fostering national or international amateur sports competition, and preventing cruelty to Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 19 children or animals. The term charitable is used in its generally accepted legal sense and includes relief of the poor, the distressed, or the underprivileged; advancement of religion; advancement of education or science; erecting or maintaining public buildings, monuments, or works; lessening the burdens of government; lessening neighborhood tensions; eliminating prejudice and discrimination; defending human and civil rights secured by law; and combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency. (IRS.gov, “Exempt Purposes—Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c)(3),” updated December 7, 2009, https://ift.tt/Duj9XmL 0,,id=175418,00.html). Furthermore, IRS rules indicate that nonprofit organizations cannot be owned by any private shareholder or individual, and the goal of such organizations cannot be to increase the wealth of such a person or persons. In addition, to meet this exempt status, nonprofit organizations cannot exist to promote a specific political campaign, and they must restrict their lob“No one is useless bying and advocacy activities. in this world who lightens the burden of it for someone else.” Aside from granting a special tax status to not-for-profit charitable organizations, government also contributes a great deal of money outright to the nonprofit sector. In 2005 the U.S. government provided about $18 billion in BENJAMIN FRANKLIN American Statesman; direct payments to nonprofits; that translates into about Ambassador; Patriot 30 percent of all revenue for nonprofit organizations in 2005 (Wing, Pollack, and Blackwood 2008). Some of the recipients of these funds are well-known organizations and typically have a strong presence in our communities. For instance, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America received about $81 million in 2005. Their mission is to “enable all young people, especially those who need us most, to reach their full potential as productive, caring, responsible citizens” (www.bgca.org). For over 40 years, the community-based organization Experience Works, originally called Green Thumb, Inc., has received about $85 million in government dollars to “improve the lives of older people through employment, community service, and training” (www.experienceworks. org). By promoting the nonprofit sector, government is strengthening the fabric of American civil society. Another effort by government to enhance the common good is the promotion of research. Although this may sound like an abstract concept that rarely affects the lives of everyday people, it is just the opposite. One of the main avenues through which research funding has a broad public impact is the National Institutes of Health, or the NIH. The NIH was formed in 1887 and is now composed of 27 different research institutions and groups. It is one of the largest funders of scientific research worldwide. In 2007 the NIH made over 47,000 research awards at a total cost of about $20 billion. Over its history, the NIH has provided funding for groundbreaking dis20 CHAPTER 1 Accountability Accountability in the public sector most often boils down to dual aspects: accountability for what and accountability to whom. Typically, accountability is a political construction. Public managers are accountable to their legislative counterparts. The delegation of power takes place when Congress assigns its constitutional Article I, Section 8 powers to the executive branch. Clause 18 of this section specifies that Congress has the power “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or office thereof.” While the courts have shifted back and forth on the issue of congressional delegation, it is clearly stated in the “delegation doctrine” that Congress can delegate its power to the executive branch as long as the power is accompanied by sufficient standards or guidelines so the executive branch is controlled by Congress. Therefore, the chief executive is accountable to the legislature from which power was granted. In a 2000 article for Public Administration Review, David Rosenbloom highlights the dimensions of accountability implemented to link public administration to a constitutional framework. Traditionally, the executive branch was seen as being under the purview of the executive (president) in a top-down accountability scheme. However, as Rosenbloom points out, this is not in line with the U.S. constitutional framework or with the interpretations handed down by the Supreme Court over the years. As Congress delegates its power, Congress provides oversight for that delegated power. Rosenbloom (2000) cites four acts passed by Congress to ensure this constitutional accountability: the Administrative Procedures Act, the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the Negotiated Rulemaking Act, and the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act. Other observers divide accountability into a number of schemes and categories such as Bureaucratic, Legal, Professional and Political (Romzek and Dubnick 1987). Robert Behn (2001), in his text Rethinking Democratic Accountability, provides further insight into the question of professional accountability. Behn argues that accountability among public administrators should be based on their performance. He claims that systems of accountability should not be set up to deter behavior; they should be set up to provide incentives for desirable behavior (Behn 2001). Implementation Implementation is a concept that seems straightforward initially but raises many questions upon further examination. When, for instance, does implementation (continued) Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 21 (continued) begin? Who is responsible for implementation? Can the implementers change the mode of implementation? We look to the formation of the term implementation from the classic text by Pressman and Wildavsky (1973), Implementation. They write, “Implementation, to us, means just what Webster and Roget say it does: to carry out, accomplish, fulfill, produce, complete.” They authors state that it is a policy that is being implemented, but they go further, providing a context for implementation. Implementation must have a clear goal; otherwise, it is difficult to determine the success of the implementation efforts. The challenge in defining implementation in this manner is that often the environment and conditions change. While initially stipulated with a clear goal, the process may change due to the environment in which the implementation is taking place. Ultimately, “implementers become responsible both for the initial conditions and for the objectives toward which they are supposed to lead” (Pressman and Wildavsky 1973). Those responsible for implementation are sometime referred to as “street-level bureaucrats”—a term coined by Lipsky (1980). These men and women are implementing state policies; they are responsible for providing everyday services, including police, education, and waste disposal. Lipsky believes this aspect of implementation has grave consequences for society. He writes, “Thus, in a sense, street-level bureaucrats implicitly mediate aspects of constitutional relationships of citizens to the state. In short, they hold the key to a dimension of citizenship.” According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., the verb implement means to “CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH; especially: to give practical effect to and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures.” coveries throughout the scientific community (NIH, 2010). Since 1998 NIH research has contributed to increased prevention of type 2 diabetes, advanced treatments for breast cancer, and new knowledge about the transmission and suppression of HIV/AIDS. Table 1.1 summarizes some of the scientific breakthroughs made possible by NIH funding (NIH, 2009). This research—funded or conducted by the NIH—has saved millions of lives. Many other federal agencies have made similar advancements that dramatically improve our quality of life, including for example the National Science Foundation (2010), the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (2010), and the National Office of Public Health Genomics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). In a world that becomes smaller each day in a technological sense—with, for instance, the ability to transmit information from the United States to China in a mat22 CHAPTER 1 TABLE 1.1 – THE NIH ALMANAC—HISTORICAL DATA Year Discoveries 1998 Results from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored clinical trial showed that women at high risk of developing breast cancer who took the drug tamoxifen had 49 percent fewer cases of breast cancer than those who did not. Tamoxifen was hailed as the first drug to prevent breast cancer in women at high risk for the disease. 1999 A team of investigators led by a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) grantee discovered that a subspecies of chimpanzees native to west Africa are the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for the global AIDS pandemic. 2000 Researchers supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) demonstrated that a simple and inexpensive change in basic surgical procedures—giving patients more oxygen during and immediately after surgery— can cut the rate of wound infections in half, thus saving millions of dollars in hospital costs by helping to prevent postsurgical wound infection, nausea, and vomiting. 2001 A team composed of scientists from National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), grantees of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and National Institute on Aging (NIA), and others demonstrated that adult stem cells isolated from mouse bone marrow could become functioning heart muscle cells when injected into a damaged mouse heart. The new cells at least partially restored the heart’s ability to pump blood. 2002 People with elevated levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood had nearly double the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to a team of scientists supported by NIA and NINDS. The findings, in a group of participants in NHLBI’s long-running Framingham Study, are the first to tie homocysteine levels measured several years before with a later diagnosis of AD and the other dementias, providing some of the most powerful evidence yet of an association between high plasma homocysteine and later significant memory loss. 2003 Researchers supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) found a gene called 5-HTT that influences whether people become depressed when faced with major life stresses such as relationship problems, financial difficulties and illness. The gene by itself does not cause depression, but it does affect how likely people are to get depressed when faced with major life stresses. Another study led by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) researchers found that this same gene affects drinking habits in college students. These studies are major contributions toward understanding how a person’s response to their environment is influenced by their genetic makeup. (continued) Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 23 TABLE 1.1 – THE NIH ALMANAC—HISTORICAL DATA (continued) Year Discoveries 2004 An international clinical trial concluded that women should consider taking letrozole after five years of tamoxifen treatment to continue to reduce the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. This advance in breast cancer treatment will improve the outlook for many thousands of women. NCI supported the U.S. portion of the study, which offered one more example of the ability to interrupt the progression of a cancer using a drug that blocks a crucial metabolic pathway in the tumor cell. 2005 An HIV/AIDS vaccine developed by scientists at NIAID’s Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center moved into its second phase of clinical testing in October. This vaccine contains synthetic genes representing HIV subtypes found in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia that account about 85 percent of HIV infections worldwide. 2006 NCI-funded research spanning nearly two decades helped lead to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, a disease that claims the lives of nearly 4,000 women each year in the United States. It is the first cancer vaccine approved by the FDA. 2007 An experimental vaccine—originally created and tested over the past two decades by NIAID scientists—appears safe and effective in preventing hepatitis E, a sometimes deadly viral disease prevalent in developing countries. A clinical trial involving nearly 2,000 healthy adults in Nepal, where the virus is widespread, found that the vaccine was nearly 96 percent effective in preventing hepatitis E during a follow-up period of about two years. Source: National Institutes of Health, “The NIH Almanac—Historical Data,” September 1, 2009, https://ift.tt/v8CgbjK. ter of seconds—one must also consider the common good outside U.S. borders. Since the 1980s, globalization has increased at a particularly rapid pace, resulting in both positive and negative effects. Globalization has changed how Americans do business and has turned a national economy into a global economy. It has opened up markets for American products and has allowed for the importation of less expensive goods from developing markets—i.e., China, India, Brazil. At the same time, U.S. citizens have also witnessed how globalization might affect their health and safety. Foodborne illnesses such as mad cow disease have traveled across borders. H1N1 and avian flu strains have entered the United States with relative ease. Globalization has made it easier for terrorists to attack American interests both within and outside the borders of the United States. This new global environment stresses the need for the U.S. government to increase national security while improving defensive measures on an international scale as well. 24 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.12 – NET COST OF OPERATIONS (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS) N E T C O S T O F O P E R A T I O N S (Dollars in Thousands) $117.152 (1.3%) $1,386,054 (14.9%) $459,065 (4.9%) $1,303,047 (14.0%) Objective Peace and Security Governing Justly and Democratically Investing in People Economic Growth Humanitarian Assistance Operating Unit Management $3,000,895 (32.3%) $3,029,681 (32.6%) Total $ 9,295,894 Source: USAID Policy. 2007. “Analysis of USAID’s Financial Statements. Overview of Financial Position.” https://ift.tt/h02pWG7. One of the federal government’s most powerful tools in the international arena is the United States Agency for International Development, or USAID. Created in 1961 with the primary responsibility of providing long-range social and economic assistance, USAID has a vision of “accelerat[ing] the advance of democracy, prosperity and human well-being in developing countries.” According to the agency, its mission is to facilitate “human progress in developing countries by reducing poverty, advancing democracy, building market economies, promoting security, responding to crises, and improving quality of life. Working with governments, institutions, and civil society, we assist individuals to build their own futures by mobilizing the full range of America’s public and private resources through our expert presence overseas” (USAID 2008). To accomplish that mission, USAID has five strategic goals around which it organizes its operations: Peace and Security, Governing Justly and Democratically, Investing in People, Economic Growth, and Humanitarian Assistance. As displayed in Figure 1.12, in FY 2007 the total net cost of USAID operations was about $9.3 billion, and less than 2 percent of that was spent on management. More than $8 billion was spent on foreign aid. Since its inception in 1961, USAID has revolutionized the concept of foreign assistance programs. According to the USAID website: • More than 3 million lives are saved every year through USAID immunization programs. • Oral rehydration therapy, a low cost and easily administered solution Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 25 EXERCISE 1.2 Jennifer Government: NationStates (Simulation) In this nation-building simulation game, students take charge of a country and test their ability to improve its performance. Your decisions may reduce crime, improve educational achievement, lift people out of poverty, and accelerate economic growth. But improving performance is dependent upon the performance metrics you chose to establish. After completing the simulation, students will summarize the plan of action they have taken, justify those actions, and assess the outcomes of their decisions. In groups of three to five students, compare their strategies and results. Jennifer Government: NationStates, www.nationstates.net developed through USAID programs in Bangladesh, is credited with saving tens of millions of lives around the globe. 26 • There were 58 democratic nations in 1980. By 1995, this number had jumped to 115 nations. • Life expectancy in the developing world has increased by about 33 percent, smallpox has been eradicated worldwide, and as of 2009, the number of the world’s chronically undernourished has been reduced by 50 percent. • The United Nations Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, in which USAID played a major role, resulted in 1.3 billion people receiving safe drinking water sources, and 750 million people receiving sanitation for the first time. • With the help of USAID, 21,000 farm families in Honduras have been trained in improved land cultivation practices that have reduced soil erosion by 70,000 tons. • Agricultural research sponsored by the United States sparked the “Green Revolution” in India. These breakthroughs in agricultural technology and practices resulted in the most dramatic increase in agricultural yields and production in the history of humankind, allowing nations like India and Bangladesh to become nearly food self-sufficient. • In the past 50 years, infant and child death rates in the developing world have been reduced by 50 percent, and health conditions around the world have improved more during this period than in all previous human history. • Early USAID action in southern Africa in 1992 prevented massive famine in the region, saving millions of lives. CHAPTER 1 • Literacy rates are up 33 percent worldwide in the last 25 years, and primary school enrollment has tripled in that period. (Source: https://ift.tt/uTJkDOm) Some observers may question the amount of money the U.S. government spends on foreign assistance. Some may think that money can be better spent within the borders of the United States. Ultimately, the answers to those questions remain a political decision. Nevertheless, it is clear that without U.S. assistance, the world would be a much different place. Whether through supporting the nonprofit community, investing in research, or providing assistance to the international community, federal government support enhances the quality of life as we know it. But what about local governments? What efforts can we identify that improve the quality of our lives on a local level? Governments around the country continually take innovative initiatives to deliver public services as promised in their charters, by their elected officials, and by the appointed public servants who are committed to continuous improvement. For example, the city of Chicago makes enormous investments in police services. In 2002 the Chicago Police Department (CPD) launched the Citizen and Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) program. CLEAR is a broad database of crime statistics. The data are, in general, openly accessible through websites and provide both police officers and citizens detailed crime information in response to their inquiries. CLEAR data are displayed utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Citizens may engage “Government is a the system in multiple ways: First, they can report incitrust, and the dents through CLEAR. According to the website, those reofficers of the ports “should be criminal, quality of life or neighborhood government are disorder in nature, which affects more than one person and trustees; and both should be addressed by the police, city services and the the trust and the community” (Chicago Police Department 2008). Second, trustees are citizens may sign up to receive regular updates of crime stacreated for the tistics within a certain area. Areas can be defined by ward, benefit of the beat, district, etc. Finally, citizens can form block groups, people.” such as those associated with small, geographically defined HENRY CLAY communities, or they can be represented as vertical block American Statesman groups for residents of one building. Once a block group is formed, data about that specific block will then be posted in the CLEAR database. The database can also be useful to police officers. According to Governing magazine, police officer Brian Joseph Tierney claimed it has helped him deal with criminals as he walks the beat: “It’s very deflating to them,” he says, “when some character finds out that I know he’s lying to me because I was able to pull up his picture with the touch of a finger.” Tierney’s experience must be felt by others. Crime in Chicago has been decreasing by about 6 percent each year Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 27 since the system was initiated in 2002. Based upon Chicago’s success, similar systems are being implemented throughout the United States. Public Services Are Provided by Dedicated Public Servants It is ironic that the many deeply personal services of government, only a few of which have been described here, are often provided by anonymous public servants who rarely gain personal recognition. That is the government with which most Americans are familiar—a bureaucracy staffed by civil servants with no faces and no names. Every day millions of public servants provide the services that make our lives more secure, healthy, and vibrant. Dr. Rajiv Jain is the Chief of Staff and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Program Director within the Department of Veterans Affairs. Jain received his Doctor of Medicine from Saurashtra University in India. He then continued his training at the University of Connecticut and at the University of Virginia Hospital in Charlottesville, Virginia. He has won many awards for his outstanding work dealing with MSRA. In the United States, about 100,000 people die each year from infections contracted during hospital stays. MRSA is one of the major causes of those infections. Dr. Jain’s work has led to the reduction of MRSA-caused infections by about 60 percent. If implemented throughout the United States, his techniques would reduce the number of deaths by about 60,000 people and decrease the number of infections (which has now reached about 2 million) by 1.2 million. Many other medical personnel—though unrecognized—are helping him implement this program: “I think the [Service to America] award should really go to the people [working in the hospitals] because, although we came up with the idea, they are the ones carrying it out every day” (Lu 2009). What was originally intended to be a short stint at Veterans Affairs has turned into 29 years— a dedicated life of serving the public. Jain believes, “The fact that you are serving the public to me is absolutely the icing on the cake” (Service to America 2008). EXERCISE 1.3 Harness the Power of Public Service (Video) President Bill Clinton addresses Rutgers University students regarding the value of public service and civic engagement. Access the following website and watch the video. What key messages would you deliver concerning the importance of public service? Augment your answer with information from other videos on this site that deal with the impact of public service on community building. Rutgers Newark Public Service, “Harness the Power of Public Service,” September 29, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/RUPubServe 28 CHAPTER 1 Rarely do we acknowledge a particular public servant who keeps our community safe or teaches our children on a daily basis. World War II veteran Osceola L. Fletcher (Ozzie) is a public servant whose career spans 60 years. Not only did he serve as an officer in the New York Police Department for 24 years, but he continued to work another 15 years as a teacher in the New York City Public Schools and then went on to become a community relations specialist in the Brooklyn District Attorney’s office. He was honored “We know that with a Sloan Public Service Award, at which time the government can’t Brooklyn District Attorney stated: “Ozzie Fletcher’s long solve all our and distinguished career epitomizes what it means to be a problems—and we public servant” (Fund for the City of New York 2009, p. 2). don’t want it to. In Ozzie’s own words, “Everything I have done is a continBut we also know uum of the kind of public service I believe in. I have had that there are the opportunity to work with such a wonderful diversity of some things we people—something that was not possible when I was growcan’t do on our ing up. It is important to connect generations to each other; otherwise we lose perspective on the meaning of what came own. We know that before and what lies ahead, and how to achieve a less conthere are some tentious world” (Fund for the City of New York 2009). things we do better Bureaucracy—Functional or Not? together.” BARACK OBAMA Bureaucracy is the structure within which virtually all gov44th President of the ernment organizations operate and is characteristic of United States large, private concerns, as well. The concept of a bureaucracy is to ensure that goods and services can be produced or provided in the most efficient manner possible. Max Weber (1922/2004), an eminent German sociologist and organizational theorist, defined bureaucracy as having the following characteristics: I. Jurisdictional boundaries—which are typically prescribed by laws or administrative regulations. II. Hierarchy—which ensures an ordered system where superiors monitor subordinates. III. Reliance on written documents (or the preservation of files). IV. Expertly trained managers. V. The management of the organization subscribes to general rules, which can be learned and applied uniformly more or less. It has become commonplace to associate negative stereotypes with bureaucrats. These are often perpetuated by groups seeking smaller government, politicians looking to place blame, or citizens involved in uncomfortable interactions or transactions. But these stereotypes often have little basis in fact. The career officials who Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 29 work for government are typically productive, dedicated members of society. Politicians will often blame an incompetent bureaucracy when a policy fails but rarely credit the same bureaucratic officials when a policy is successfully implemented. A common claim is that those who work in the public sector receive too much money for the amount of time that they work. This is especially common in discussions of teachers. The assumption is that they work fewer hours a day than other professionals and have long vacations throughout the year and in the summer. But a recent study by the Time Committee (2007)—established by the State of Hawaii Board of Education—found that teachers in Hawaii work an extra 1,780 hours a year preparing for class, grading papers, attending school events, etc. Even if that figure is somewhat exaggerated, the study suggests that teachers are actually underpaid for the amount of hours they spend working in a professional capacity (Joint Hawaii State Teachers Association and Board of Education Time Committee 2007). Not only do teachers spend more time working in a professional capacity than is typically acknowledged, but they work in a far more turbulent environment than many other professionals. During the 2006–2007 school year, students aged 12 to 18 were the victims of 1.7 million nonfatal crimes, and about 10 percent of teachers in urban schools were threatened with harm or violence (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In the 2003–2004 school year, more than 120,000 teachers reported being physically attacked by a student. That vulnera- At Age 112, Montana Resident Reflects on More Than a Century of Changes WILLIAM MARCUS [PBS]: And who, of all those presidents, who’s your favorite? WALTER BREUNING: Well, I think Roosevelt done the most when he created Social Security and made several changes. But, you know, the second war, if he hadn’t opened up at that time, Roosevelt would have had a tough time. WILLIAM MARCUS [PBS]: How would you counsel future generations to be a part of their country? WALTER BREUNING: Everybody learns from life what’s going on. And if they pay attention to everything that people do, especially helping people, that’s one big thing. A lot of people think they’re born for themselves; I don’t think that. I believe that we’re here to help other people all the way through. Source: PBS NewsHour, online transcript, February 16, 2009, www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/social_issues/jan-june09/walter_02–16.html. 30 CHAPTER 1 bility is not specific to teachers, however. In 2002, about 35 percent of social workers reported being attacked. Other public servants such as police officers and firefighters face even greater risk to their lives. On average about 62,000 police officers are assaulted and 95,000 firefighters are injured each year. The contributions provided by dedicated public professionals in dangerous settings certainly deserve our appreciation. What, Then, Is Public Administration? Among the many depictions of the field of public administration (PA) is that of the administrator as an impartial implementer. This view gained much of its credibility from some of the original scholars in the field of public administration, including Woodrow Wilson (1887/2004) and Frank Goodnow (1906/2004). Both scholars viewed the field as being separate from the everyday clashes and compromises of politics. They defined a field in which politics and administration could and should be separated from each other. Wilson held that “the business of government is to organize the common interest against the special interest” (1887/2004). Goodnow advocated for a distinction between the functions of the politics and the administration of government, noting that politics had to do with policies and the administration dealt with their execution (1906/2004). Although this view of a “dichotomy” has long been disputed and is commonly viewed as overly narrow and simplistic, its legacy still partly defines public administration. An overly narrow understanding of public administration can be challenged quite easily by examining the many facets of responsibility for the public administrator. Although impartial implementer may be one legitimate role, it does not fully define a field so vast and influential in its actions. In 1926 Leonard White—a renowned public administration scholar—defined public administration as “the management of men and materials in the accomplishment of the purpose of the state.” He went on to say, “The objective of public administration is the most efficient utilization of the resources at the disposal of officials and employees.” Absent from this definition, though, is the idea of democracy and social equity (White 1926/2004). A narrower view of public administration is as public management, generally considered the management of organizations within the government or nonprofit sector. Unlike private management, public management is driven by its need to reach its goals or mission rather than its need to make a profit. Public management’s inherent to democratic principles affects the dynamics of management policies. Public management has to do with some of the key responsibilities of the executive as defined by Luther Gulick’s (1937/2004) formulation of PODSCORB— Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing, Coordinating, Recruiting, and Budgeting. In the twenty-first century, public management also deals with broad organizational objectives through strategic planning, budgeting, and human resource implementation. Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 31 The Encyclopedia Britannica Online defines public administration as “the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of government operations” (https://ift.tt/W6Iqvp3 482290/public-administration). Since the 1930s, the field of public administration has changed significantly. One of the largest changes came in the 1960s and 1970s with the ideas that grew out of the New Public Administration movement. Eminent scholar H. George Frederickson wrote: “The rationale for public administration is almost always better (more efficient or economical) management. New Public Administration adds social equity to the classical objectives and rationale” (1971/2004). The concept of social equity— and its adoption as an integral element of government’s mission—has transformed the field of public administration. Our own definition incorporates some of the classical and more recent concepts associated with public administration. We define public administration as the formation and implementation of public policy. It is an amalgamation of management-based strategies such as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. It incorporates behaviorally based practices adopted from fields such as psychology and sociology. All of those strategies and practices are utilized within a democratic framework of accountability. The formation and implementation of policy, while formally controlled by government managers, has since been expanded to include the nonprofit and for-profit communities. 32 CHAPTER 1 KEY TERMS 501(c)(3) Private sector Bureaucracy Public administration (PA) Employment taxes Public management Globalization Public sector Gross domestic product (GDP) Sales taxes Nonprofit sector Taxation REFERENCES Behn, R.D. 2001. Rethinking Democratic Accountability. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Boys and Girls Clubs of America. 2010. “Who We Are.” http://www.bgca.org/ whoweare/mission.asp. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. “Economic News Release. Volunteering in the United States, 2009.” https://ift.tt/lgT4UcF. Chicago Police Department. 2008. “CLEARpath. Community Concerns.” https://ift.tt/FlLkqG5. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. “EPA Office of Water.” http:// water.epa.gov/. Experience Works. 2010. “What We Do.” https://ift.tt/Y0K5Jqw. Frederickson, H.G. 1971/2004. “Toward a New Public Administration.” In Classics of Public Administration, ed. A.C. Hyde, J.M. Shafritz, and S.J. Parkes, 315–27. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Fund for the City of New York. 2009. “Sloan Public Service Awards.” New York: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation/Fund for the City of New York. www.fcny.org/ fcny/core/sloan/. Goodnow. F. 1906/2004. “Politics and Administration.” In Classics of Public Administration, ed. A.C. Hyde, J.M. Shafritz, and S.J. Parkes, 35–37. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Greene, J.P., and M. Winters. 2005. “The Teacher-Pay Myth.” New York Post, September 22. Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society 33 Gulick, L. 1937/2004. “Notes on the Theory of Organization.” In Classics of Public Administration, ed. A.C. Hyde, J.M. Shafritz, and S.J. Parkes, 90–98. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Howe, S. 2008. “Eight Stand-out Public Servants Receive Coveted Service to America Medals at Washington, DC Gala.” Partnership for Public Service, September 16. https://ift.tt/LXRx29V sammies.shtml. Joint Hawaii State Teachers Association and Board of Education Time Committee. 2007. Time Committee Preliminary Report. Honolulu: Hawaii Board of Education, http://www.focusmauinui.com/pdf/TimeCommittee%20PreliminaryReport_3–15–07.pdf. Light, P.C. 2002. “Fact Sheet on the New True Size of Government.” Brookings Institution website. https://ift.tt/QHbSUtl 0905politics_ligh…

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