المملكة العربية السعودية وزارة التعليم الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 1 MGT101 (1st Term 2022-2023) Deadline: 08/10/2022 @ 23:59 (To be posted/released to students on BB anytime in Week 2) Course Name: Principles of Management Course Code: MGT101 Student’s Name: Semester: 1st CRN: Student’s ID Number: Academic Year: 1444 H (2022-2023)1st Term For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Haifa Al-Harith Students’ Grade: /15 Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • • This assignment is an individual assignment. Due date for Assignment 1 is 08/10/2022 • The Assignment must be submitted only in WORD format via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University المملكة العربية السعودية وزارة التعليم الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment Purposes/Learning Outcomes: After completion of Assignment-1 students will able to understand the LO 1.1: State the concept of management functions, roles, skills of a manager and the different theories of management. LO 3.2: Demonstrate organization’s role in ethics, diversity, and social responsibility. Assignment-1 Please read the case “Who’s to Blame for the College Admissions Scandal?” given on Page number 112, Chapter 3– “The Manager’s Changing Work Environment and Ethical Responsibilities” available in your textbook/e-textbook “Management: A Practical Introduction” 10th edition by Angelo Kinicki, & Denise B. Soignet and answer the following questions: QUESTIONS Q1. What is the underlying problem in this case from the perspective of federal government, the parents, and the prospective college students? (3 Marks) Q2. Why do you think the parents were willing to play such a significant and risky role in their kid’s college admissions? (3 Marks) Q3. How do you think the general environment, particularly economic, demographic, international and sociocultural forces, fed into the admissions scandal? (3 Marks) Q4. Are the children who were aware of the cheating scheme purely victims in this situation, or should they also be considered unethical? Explain your answer using one of the four approaches to deciding ethical dilemmas. (3 Marks) Q5. Based on what you have learned about Rick Singer, his involvement, and his decision to cooperate in the investigation, where would you place his level of moral development? Explain your answer. (3 Marks) ANSWERS: 1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University المملكة العربية السعودية وزارة التعليم الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية College of Administrative and Financial Sciences 2. 3. 4. 5. Because learning changes everything. ® Week 1 (PPT1) CHAPTER 1 The Exceptional Manager What You Do, How You Do It © 2022 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill. ©Olivier Renck/ Getty Images LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 Identify the rewards of being an exceptional manager. List the four principle functions of a manager. Describe the levels and areas of management. Identify the roles an effective manager must play. Discuss the skills of an outstanding manager. Identify the seven challenges faced by most managers. Define the core competencies, knowledge, soft skills, attitudes, and other characteristics needed for career readiness and discuss how they can be developed. 1-8 Describe the process for managing your career readiness. © McGraw Hill ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ 1-1ﺣﺪﺩﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻛﻮﻧﻚ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍً ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺉﻴﺎً .ﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﺉﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒ 1-2ﺍﻟﺮﺉﻴﺴﻴﺔﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﺮ .ﻭﺻﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ .ﺣﺪﺩ 1-3ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ .ﻧﺎﻗﺶ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ 1-4ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺰ. 1-5 1-6ﺣﺪﺩﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ. 1-7ﺣﺪﺩﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺉﺺ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻧﺎﻗﺶﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ. 1-8ﺻﻒﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ USING MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS 1. Functions of management. 2. Applying the functions of management to school projects. 3. Applying the functions of management in your personal life. © McGraw Hill ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ .1ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ. .2ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ. .3ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ MANAGEMENT: WHAT IT IS, WHAT ITS BENEFITS ARE The Rise of a Leader Key to Career Growth: “Doing Things I’ve Never Done Before” The Art of Management Defined Why Organizations Value Managers: The Multiplier Effect What Are the Rewards of Studying and Practicing Management? © McGraw Hill ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ:ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ،ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻮﺍﺉﺪﻩ ﺻﻌﻮﺩﻗﺎﺉﺪ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ” :ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﺷﻴﺎء ﻟﻢ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﺍً ﺗﻢﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ” ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﻓﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ :ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ؟ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE RISE OF A LEADER General Motors CEO Mary Barra © McGraw Hill Mark Lennihan/AP Images KEY TO CAREER GROWTH: “DOING THINGS I’VE NEVER DONE BEFORE” Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon, left Wall Street to start Amazon from his basement. © McGraw Hill ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ: ”ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎء ﻟﻢ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ” ﻏﺎﺩﺭﺟﻴﻒ ﺑﻴﺰﻭﺱ ،ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﺯﻭﻥ ،ﻭﻭﻝ ﺳﺘﺮﻳﺖ ﻟﻴﺒﺪﺃﺃﻣﺎﺯﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻮ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE ART OF MANAGEMENT DEFINED • • • • © McGraw Hill Being an exceptional manager is an art that can be learned. Management is the art of getting things done through people. Managers are task-oriented, achievementoriented, and people-oriented. Good managers are concerned with trying to achieve both efficiency and effectiveness. ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﻓﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ • ﻛﻮﻧﻚ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍً ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺉﻴﺎً ﻫﻮ ﻓﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻪ. • ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻦ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ. • ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﻮﻥ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ،ﻣﻮﺟﻬﻮﻥ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ ، ﻭﻣﻮﺟﻬﻮﻥﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ. • ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪﻭﻥ ﻳﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ WHY ORGANIZATIONS VALUE MANAGERS: THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT Good managers create value. © McGraw Hill As a manager you have a multiplier effect: Your influence on the organization is multiplied far beyond the results that can be achieved by just one person acting alone. ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍﻣﺪﻳﺮﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ: ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦﺟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺧﻠﻖﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺪﻳﺮﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ: ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹﺑﻚ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻔﺖﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺉﺞﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻩ. WHAT ARE THE REWARDS OF STUDYING MANAGEMENT? The rewards of studying management include: • You will have an insider’s understanding of how to deal with organizations from the outside. • You will know from experience how to relate to your supervisors. • You will better interact with co-workers. • You will be able to manage yourself and your career. • You might make more money during your career. © McGraw Hill ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ؟ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻲﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ: • ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ. • ﺳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ. • ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻣﻼء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ. • ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ WHAT ARE THE REWARDS OF PRACTICING MANAGEMENT? The rewards of practicing management include: • You and your employees can experience a sense of accomplishment. • You can stretch your abilities and magnify your range. • You can build a catalog of successful products or services. © McGraw Hill ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ؟ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ: • ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻚ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻚ ﻭﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻚ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻛﺘﺎﻟﻮﺝ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ WHAT MANAGERS DO: THE FOUR PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS • Planning: Discussed in Part 3 • Organizing: Discussed in Part 4 • Leading: Discussed in Part 5 • Controlling: Discussed in Part 6 © McGraw Hill ﻣﺎﺫﺍﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ: ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ • ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ :ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء 3 • ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ :ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء 4 • ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ :ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ • ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ :ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء 6 © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS Figure 1.1: The Management Process Access the text alternative for these images. © McGraw Hill PYRAMID POWER: LEVELS OF AND AREAS OF MANAGEMENT • The Traditional Management Pyramid: Levels and Areas • Four Levels of Management • Areas of Management: Functional Managers versus General Managers • Managers for Three Types of Organizations: For-Profit, Nonprofit, Mutual-Benefit • Different Organizations, Different Management? © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓﺍﻟﻬﺮﻣﻴﺔ :ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ • ﻫﺮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ :ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ • ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ • ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ :ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﻦ • ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ :ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ،ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺑﺤﻲ ،ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ • ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ،ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؟ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT PYRAMID: LEVELS AND AREAS Figure 1.2 © McGraw Hill FOUR LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT • Top managers make long-term decisions. • Middle managers implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them. • First-line managers make short-term operating decisions. • Team leader is responsible for facilitating team activities. • Nonmanagerial employees either work alone on tasks or with others on a variety of teams. © McGraw Hill ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ • • ﻗﻤﺔﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺪ. ﻭﺳﻂﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﻂ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦﻓﻮﻗﻬﻢ. ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺮﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ. ﺭﺉﻴﺲﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ. • ﻏﻴﺮﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ. • • © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ AREAS OF MANAGEMENT: FUNCTIONAL MANAGERS VERSUS GENERAL MANAGERS • Functional managers are responsible for just one organizational activity. • General managers are responsible for several organizational activities. © McGraw Hill D Dipasupil/Getty Image ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ :ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻮﻥ • ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ. • ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺩﻳﺒﺎﺳﻮﺑﻞ /ﺟﻴﺘﻲ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺝ MANAGERS FOR THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS For-profit organizations Nonprofit organizations Mutual-benefit organizations © McGraw Hill ﻣﺪﺭﺍءﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕﺍﻟﺮﺑﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺑﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONS, DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT? Generally you would be performing the four management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, regardless of the type of organization. The measures of success is the single biggest difference. © McGraw Hill ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ،ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؟ ﺑﺸﻜﻞﻋﺎﻡ ،ﺳﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ،ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ. ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻛﺒﺮﻓﺮﻕ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ROLES MANAGERS MUST PLAY SUCCESSFULLY The Manager’s Roles: How Do Managers Spend Their Time? © McGraw Hill Three Types of Managerial Roles: • Interpersonal • Informational • Decisional ﻳﺠﺐﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻣﺪﺭﺍء ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ:ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦﻳﻘﻀﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﻢ؟ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ: • ﺷﺨﺼﻲ • ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ • ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻱ THE MANAGER’S ROLES: HOW DO MANAGERS SPEND THEIR TIME? • Managers are always working, and they are in constant demand. • Managers spend virtually all of their work time communicating with others. • Managers must be purposeful and proactive about managing their time. © McGraw Hill ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ :ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﻢ؟ • ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺉﻤﺎ ،ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺩﺍﺉﻢ. • ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ. • ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THREE TYPES OF MANAGERIAL ROLES: INTERPERSONAL, INFORMATIONAL, AND DECISIONAL Interpersonal roles: • Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison Informational roles: • Monitor, Disseminator, and Spokesperson Decisional roles: • © McGraw Hill Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator ﺛﻼﺛﺔﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ :ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ،ﻭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ: • ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ،ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺉﺪ ،ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭﺇﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ: • ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﻭﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ: • ﺭﺍﺉﺪ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ،ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ،ﻭﻣﺨﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻭﺽ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE SKILLS EXCEPTIONAL MANAGERS NEED Technical Skills: • The ability to perform a specific job Conceptual Skills: • The ability to think analytically Human Skills: • “Soft Skills,” the ability to interact well with people © McGraw Hill And additional valued traits in managers. ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺉﻴﺔ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ: • ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ: • ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ: • “ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ” ،ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ. TECHNICAL SKILLS Having the requisite technical skills seems to be most important at the lower levels of management—that is, among employees in their first professional job and first-line managers. © McGraw Hill ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺒﺪﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻥﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ — ﺃﻱﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﻢﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Conceptual skills are more important as you move up the management ladder, particularly for top managers, who must deal with problems that are ambiguous but that could have far-reaching consequences. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ،ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ،ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕﺍﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻬﺎﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ HUMAN SKILLS The most difficult set of skills to master but which are especially important with people in teams, an important part of today’s organizations. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺻﻌﺐﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻹﺗﻘﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﻕ ،ﺟﺰء ﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE MOST VALUABLE TRAITS IN MANAGERS Among the chief skills companies seek in top managers are the following: • The ability to motivate and engage others • The ability to communicate • Work experience outside the United States • High energy levels to meet the demands of global travel and a 24/7 world © McGraw Hill ﺃﻛﺜﺮﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺉﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻓﻲﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ: • ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺇﺷﺮﺍﻛﻬﻢ • ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ • ﺧﺒﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ • ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻟﻢ24/7 © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ SEVEN CHALLENGES TO BEING AN EXCEPTIONAL MANAGER Challenge #1: • Managing for Competitive Advantage—Staying Ahead of Rivals Challenge #2: • Managing for Technological Advances—Dealing with the “New Normal” Challenge #3: • Managing for Inclusion and Diversity—The Future Won’t Resemble the Past Challenge #4: • Managing for Globalization—The Expanding Management Universe Challenge #5: • Managing for Ethical Standards Challenge #6: • Managing for Sustainable Development—The Business of Green Challenge #7: • Managing for Happiness and Meaningfulness © McGraw Hill ﺳﺒﻌﺔﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺉﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :1 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ -ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺻﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :2 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ—ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ “ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ” ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :3 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ—ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :4 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ -ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ: • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :6 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ—ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :7 • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #1: MANAGING FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE— STAYING AHEAD OF RIVALS Organizations must stay ahead in four areas • Being responsive to customers • Innovation • Quality • Efficiency © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :1 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ - ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎءﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﺠﺐﺃﻥ ﺗﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ • ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼء • ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ • ﺟﻮﺩﺓ • ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #2: MANAGING FOR TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES–DEALING WITH THE NEW NORMAL • • • • • • © McGraw Hill Ecommerce Far-ranging electronic management all of the time. Data, data, and more data: a challenge to decision making The rise of artificial intelligence: more automation in the workforce Organizational changes: shifts in structure, jobs, goals, and management Knowledge management and collaborative computing ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :2 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ -ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ • ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ. • ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ :ﺗﺤﺪ ٍﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ • ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎء ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ :ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﻤﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ • ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ :ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #3: MANAGING FOR INCLUSION AND DIVERSITY—THE FUTURE WON’T RESEMBLE THE PAST • In the coming years there will be a different mix of women, immigrants, and older people in the general population, as well as in the workforce. • Some scholars think that diversity and variety in staffing produce organizational strength. • Clearly, however, the challenge to the manager of the near future is to maximize the contributions of employees diverse in gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :3 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ -ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎً ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ • ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦﻭﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ،ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ. • ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ. • ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ،ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ،ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻮﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #4: MANAGING FOR GLOBALIZATION—THE EXPANDING MANAGEMENT UNIVERSE • Verbal expressions and gestures don’t mean the same thing to everyone around the world. • Failure to understand cultural differences can affect organizations’ ability to manage globally. • Globalization is the increasingly interconnected nature of business around the world. • Managing for globalization will be a complex, ongoing challenge. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :4 ﻋﺎﻟﻢﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻊ FOR GLOBALIZATION - MANAGING • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺤﺎءﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ. • ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺤﺎءﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ. • ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎً ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺍً ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺍً. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #5: MANAGING FOR ETHICAL STANDARDS • Recent incidents point to serious repercussions when people fail to realize that ethical standards must be followed in every area of life. • Ethical lapses have the potential to do great harm, and not only financial harm. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :5 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ • ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺪﺍﻋﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺠﺎﻝﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ. • ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎء ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺿﺮﺭ ﺟﺴﻴﻢﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺿﺮﺭﺍً ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎً ﻓﻘﻂ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #6: MANAGING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT—THE BUSINESS OF GREEN • Our economic system has brought prosperity but in doing so has often assumed an unlimited supply of natural resources. • We now believe some of the actions and decisions of the past have caused irreversible damage to the environment. • The United Nations addressed these issues by adopting a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals. • Clearly sustainable development is a critical issue facing businesses today. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :6 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ -ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍء • ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ،ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ. • ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻻﺭﺟﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟـ ﺑﻴﺉﺔ. • ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ 17 ﻫﺪﻓﺎﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ. • ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CHALLENGE #7: MANAGING FOR HAPPINESS AND MEANINGFULNESS • Research shows that a sense of meaningfulness in your life is associated with better health, work and life satisfaction, and performance. Build meaning into your life by: • • Identifying activities you love doing • Finding a way to build your natural strengths into your personal and work life • Going out and helping someone © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱﺭﻗﻢ :7 ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ • ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍء. • ﺑﻨﺎء ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ: • ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ • ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻗﻮﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ BUILDING YOUR CAREER READINESS Figure 1.3 Sources: National Association of Colleges and Employers, “Are College Graduates ‘Career Ready’?” February 19, 2018, https://www.naceweb.org/career-readiness/competencies/are-college-graduates-career-ready/. Data derived from NACE’s “Job Outlook 2018” and “The Class of 2017 Student Survey Report.” Access text description for images. © McGraw Hill FIGURE 1.4 MODEL OF CAREER READINESS Access text description for images. © McGraw Hill DEVELOPING CAREER READINESS • Build self-awareness. • Learn from educational activities. • Model others possessing the targeted competencies. • Learn from on-the-job activities. • Seek experience from student groups and organizations. • Experiment. © McGraw Hill ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ • ﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ. • ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ. • ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ. • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ. • ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ. • ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ MANAGING YOUR CAREER READINESS Three keys to success. 1. It’s your responsibility to manage your career. Don’t count on others. 2. Personal reflection, motivation, commitment, and experimentation are essential. 3. Success is achieved by following a process. © McGraw Hill ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ. .1ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻘﻚ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ .ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ. .2ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ،ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ. .3ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ STEPS FOR DEVELOPING CAREER READINESS STEP 1: • Examine the list of career readiness competencies and pick two or three that impact your current performance. STEP 2: • Consider how you can use material from the text to develop your targeted career readiness competencies. STEP 3: • Experiment with small steps aimed at developing your targeted career readiness competencies. STEP 4: • © McGraw Hill Evaluate what happened during your small-step experiments. ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ:1 ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ • ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻗﺎﺉﻤﺔ ﻛﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻛﻔﺎءﺍﺕﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺉﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ. ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ:2 • ﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺍﺕﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ. ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻩ:3 • ﺟﺮﺏ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ. ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ:4 • ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺑﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ A PROCESS FOR DEVELOPING CAREER READINESS Figure 1.5 Process for managing career readiness. Kinicki and Associates, Inc. 2022 Access text descriptions for images. © McGraw Hill ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ1.5 ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ. ﻭKinicki ﺃﺳﻮﺷﻴﺘﺲ ،ﺇﻧﻚ. 2022 ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮ ﻳﺎﻫﻴﻞ MAKE IT A HABIT A simple way to approach the task of managing your career readiness: Make it a habit. © McGraw Hill • Identify something specific you want to accomplish. • Identify a simple, tiny change you can implement. ﺍﺟﻌﻠﻪﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻙﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ :ﺍﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ. • ﺣﺪﺩ ﺷﻴﺉﺎً ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺍً ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ. • ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ Because learning changes everything. ® Week 2 (PPT2A) CHAPTER 2 MANAGEMENT THEORY Essential Background for the Successful Manager © 2022 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill. ©Olivier Renck/ Getty Images LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2-1 Describe the development of current perspectives on management. 2-2 Discuss the insights of the classical view of management. 2-3 Describe the principles of the behavioral view of management. 2-4 Discuss the two quantitative approaches to solving problems. 2-5 Identify takeaways from the systems view of management. 2-6 Explain why there is no one best way to manage in all situations. 2-7 Define how managers foster a learning organization, highperformance work practices, and shared value and sustainable development. 2-8 Describe how to develop the career readiness competency of understanding the business. © McGraw Hill ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ 2-1ﻭﺻﻒﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ. 2-2ﻧﺎﻗﺶﺭﺅﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ. 2-3ﻭﺻﻒﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ. 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 ﻧﺎﻗﺶﺍﻟﻨﻬﺠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ .ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ. ﺍﺷﺮﺡﺳﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ. ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ. 2-8ﻭﺻﻒﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ MANAGE YOU: WHAT TYPE OF WORK ENVIRONMENT DO I PREFER? • What Does It Mean for You? • How Can You Get a Job in a Peopled Organization? © McGraw Hill ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻚ:ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔﻫﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ؟ • ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻚ؟ • ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ؟ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ EVOLVING VIEWPOINTS: HOW WE GOT TO TODAY’S MANAGEMENT OUTLOOK Creating Modern Management: The Handbook of Peter Drucker Six Practical Reasons for Studying This Chapter The Progression of Management Perspectives © McGraw Hill ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ :ﻛﻴﻒ ﻭﺻﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﻧﺸﺎءﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ :ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺍﻛﺮ ﺳﺘﺔﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CREATING MODERN MANAGEMENT: THE HANDBOOK OF PETER DRUCKER. Understanding management history can assist you in determining the type of management style you prefer. Drucker introduced several ideas that now underlie the organization and practice of management. • Workers should be treated as assets. • The corporation could be considered a human community. • There is “no business without a customer.” • Institutionalized management practices are preferable to charismatic cult leaders. © McGraw Hill Jonathan Alcorn/ZUMAPRESS/ Newscom ﺇﻧﺸﺎءﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ :ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺍﻛﺮ. ﻳﻤﻜﻦﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻙ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻔﻀﻠﻪ. ﻗﺪﻡﺩﺭﺍﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺭﺍءﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ. • ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﺄﺻﻮﻝ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺎ. • ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻤﻴﻞ. • ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺉﻒﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻳﺰﻣﻴﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺟﻮﻧﺎﺛﺎﻥﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﻥ /ﺯﻭﻣﺎﺑﺮﻳﺲ /ﻧﻴﻮﺳﻜﻮﻡ SIX PRACTICAL REASONS FOR STUDYING THIS CHAPTER 1. Understanding of the present 2. Guide to action 3. Source of new ideas 4. Clues to the meaning of your managers’ decisions 5. Clues to the meaning of outside events 6. Producing positive results © McGraw Hill ﺳﺘﺔﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟـ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ .1ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ .2ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ .3ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ .4ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻙ .5ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ .6ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺉﺞ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ FIGURE 2.1 PROGRESSION OF MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT: SCIENTIFIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT • Scientific Management: Pioneered by Taylor and the Gilbreths • Administrative Management: Pioneered by Spaulding, Fayol, and Weber • The Problem with the Classical Viewpoint: Too Mechanistic © McGraw Hill Bettmann/Getty Images ﻭﺟﻬﺔﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ :ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ • ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ :ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﻴﻠﺒﺮﻳﺘﺲ • ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ :ﺭﺍﺉﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺳﺒﻮﻟﺪﻳﻨﺞ ، ﻓﺎﻳﻮﻝﻭﻳﺒﺮ • ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ: ﺁﻟﻴﺔﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ / Bettmannﺟﻴﺘﻲ SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: PIONEERED BY TAYLOR AND THE GILBRETHS Frederick Taylor and the Four Principles of Scientific Management: © McGraw Hill • Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of it. • Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task. • Give workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods. • Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ :ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭﻭﺟﻠﺒﺮﻳﺘﺲ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ: • ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻨﻬﺎ. • ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻤﺔ. • ﺇﻋﻄﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ. • ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦﻷﺩﺍء ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻔﻬﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: PIONEERED BY TAYLOR AND THE GILBRETHS • • • • © McGraw Hill Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Industrial Engineering. Identified 17 basic motions and applied them to work processes to determine whether the tasks could be done more efficiently. Demonstrated they could eliminate motions while reducing fatigue for some workers. The Gilbreths are important because they reinforced the link between studying the physical movements in a job and workers’ efficiency. Bettmann/Getty Images ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺓﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ: ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺟﻴﻠﺒﺮﻳﺘﺲ • ﻓﺮﺍﻧﻚ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻴﻠﺒﺮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ. • ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ 17ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎً ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎً ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ. • ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ. • ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﺎﺉﻠﺔ Gilbrethsﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﺰﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔﻭﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ / Bettmannﺟﻴﺘﻲ ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT: PIONEERED BY SPAULDING, FAYOL, AND WEBER 1 Charles Clinton Spaulding: the “Father of African-American Management” Suggested considerations such as: • • • • • • © McGraw Hill The need for authority Division of labor Adequate capital Proper budgeting Cooperation Teamwork Highlighted the need to enrich “the lives of his organizational and community family” while simultaneously focusing on making a profit. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ :ﺭﺍﺉﺪﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ SPAULDINGﻭ FAYOLﻭ 1 WEBER ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻟﺰﻛﻠﻴﻨﺘﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﻮﻟﺪﻳﻨﺞ: ”ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ” ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ: • ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ • ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ • ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ • ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ • ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ • ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺳﻠﻂﺍﻟﻀﻮء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺛﺮﺍء “ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔﻭ ﻋﺎﺉﻠﺔﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ “ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰﺟﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT: PIONEERED BY SPAULDING, FAYOL, AND WEBER 2 • Fayol was not the first to investigate management behavior, but he was the first to systematize it. • His most important work, General and Industrial Management, was translated into English in 1930. • Fayol was the first to identify the major functions of management—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ :ﺭﺍﺉﺪﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ SPAULDINGﻭ FAYOLﻭ 2 WEBER • ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﺎﻳﻮﻝ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ، ﻟﻜﻨﻪﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﻤّﻬﺎ. • ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ،ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ،ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲﻋﺎﻡ .1930 • ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻳﻮﻝ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺉﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ -ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT: PIONEERED BY SPAULDING, FAYOL, AND WEBER 3 Weber believed bureaucracy was a rational, efficient, ideal organization based on principles of logic. A better-performing organization, he felt, should have five positive bureaucratic features: 1. A well-defined hierarchy of authority 2. Formal rules and procedures 3. A clear division of labor, with parts of a complex job being handled by specialists 4. Impersonality, without reference or connection to a particular person 5. Careers based on merit © McGraw Hill ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ :ﺭﺍﺉﺪﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ SPAULDINGﻭ FAYOLﻭ 3 WEBER ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ. ﻟﻘﺪﺷﻌﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍء ًﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺨﻤﺲ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ: .1ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻫﺮﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ .2ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ .3ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ،ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻣﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ .4ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ،ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ .5ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭﺓ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE PROBLEM WITH THE CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT: TOO MECHANISTIC • A flaw in the classical viewpoint is that it tends to view humans as cogs within a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs. • The essence of the classical viewpoint was that work activity was amenable to a rational approach. • The classical viewpoint also led to such innovations as management by objectives and goal setting. © McGraw Hill ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﺔﻧﻈﺮ :ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ • ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻭﺱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺁﻟﺔ ،ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ. • ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻼ ً ﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞﻋﻘﻼﻧﻲ. • ﺃﺩﺕ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT: BEHAVIORISM, HUMAN RELATIONS, AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 1 Behavioral viewpoint: Emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating employees toward achievement Developed over three phases: 1. Early behaviorism 2. The human relations movement 3. Behavioral science © McGraw Hill ﻭﺟﻬﺔﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ :ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ، ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻢ 1 ﻭﺟﻬﺔﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ :ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱﻭﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﺗﻢﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ: .1ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﺓ .2ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ .3ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT: BEHAVIORISM, HUMAN RELATIONS, AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 2 • Early Behaviorism: Pioneered by Munsterberg, Follett, and Mayo • The Human Relations Movement: Pioneered by Maslow and McGregor • The Behavioral Science Approach © McGraw Hill AP Images ﻭﺟﻬﺔﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ :ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ، ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻢ2 • ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﺓ: ﺭﺍﺉﺪﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮﺑﺮﻍﻭﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻭﻣﺎﻳﻮ • ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ :ﺭﺍﺉﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮﻭﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻳﺠﻮﺭ • ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭAP EARLY BEHAVIORISM: PIONEERED BY MUNSTERBERG, FOLLETT, AND MAYO 1 Hugo Munsterberg is called the father of industrial psychology. He suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry in three ways: 1. Study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs. 2. Identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work. 3. Devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management’s interests. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﺓ :ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮﺑﺮﻍ ﻭﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻭﻣﺎﻳﻮ1 ﻳﺴﻤﻰﻫﻮﻏﻮ ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮﺑﺮﻍ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ. ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻤﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻃﺮﻕ: .1ﺍﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ. .2ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﻤﻞﻭﺟﻪ. .3ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ EARLY BEHAVIORISM: PIONEERED BY MUNSTERBERG, FOLLETT, AND MAYO 2 • Mary Parker Follett was lauded as a female pioneer in the fields of civics and sociology. • Follett thought organizations should become more democratic, with managers and employees working cooperatively. • Three key ideas in making organizations more democratic © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﺓ :ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮﺑﺮﻍ ﻭﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻭﻣﺎﻳﻮ2 • ﺗﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﻛﺮ ﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍﺉﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ. • ﻓﻜﺮ ﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ، ﻣﻊﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻲ. • ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺭﺉﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ EARLY BEHAVIORISM: PIONEERED BY MUNSTERBERG, FOLLETT, AND MAYO 3 Mayo led a Harvard research group to conduct worker productivity studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne (Chicago) plant in the late 1920s. Hawthorne Effect: • © McGraw Hill Employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare, or that supervisors paid special attention to them. ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﺓ :ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮﺑﺮﻍ ﻭﻓﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻭﻣﺎﻳﻮ3 ﻗﺎﺩ Mayoﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺑﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫﺎﺭﻓﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ Western Electric’s Hawthorne )ﺷﻴﻜﺎﻏﻮ( ﻣﺼﻨﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ. ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎﻭﺛﻮﺭﻥ: • ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﺑﺠﻬﺪ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ،ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥﺑﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺘﻬﻢ ،ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎً ﺧﺎﺻﺎً ﺑﻬﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT: PIONEERED BY MASLOW • Abraham Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs • Maslow observed that his patients had certain innate needs that had to be satisfied before they could reach their fullest potential. © McGraw Hill ﺣﺮﻛﺔﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ: ﺭﺍﺉﺪﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ • ﺃﺑﺮﺍﻫﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻣﻲ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ • ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻳﺠﺐﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺗﻬﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT: PIONEERED BY MCGREGOR • Douglas McGregor came to realize that it was not enough for managers to try to be liked; they also needed to be aware of their attitudes toward employees. • These attitudes could be thought of as either “X” or “Y.” © McGraw Hill ﺣﺮﻛﺔﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ: ﺭﺍﺉﺪﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻜﺠﺮﻳﺠﻮﺭ • ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺩﻭﺟﻼﺱ ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻳﺠﻮﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺍء ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍﻣﺤﺒﻮﺑﻴﻦ .ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﻗﻔﻬﻢﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺇﻣﺎ “ “Xﺃﻭ “”.Y © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE APPROACH • Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers. • The disciplines of behavioral science include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics. © McGraw Hill ﻣﻨﻬﺞﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ • ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ. • ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﺮﻭﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ QUANTITATIVE VIEWPOINTS: OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED MANAGEMENT • Operations Management: Being More Effective • Evidence-Based Management: Facing Hard Facts, Rejecting Nonsense © McGraw Hill ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ: ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ • ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ :ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ • ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ :ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺉﻖﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ،ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﺍء © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT: BEING MORE EFFECTIVE Operations management consists of all the job functions and activities in which managers: • Schedule and delegate work and job training, • Plan production to meet customer needs, • Design services customers want and how to deliver them, • Locate and design company facilities, and • Choose optimal levels of product inventory to keep costs down and reduce backorders. © McGraw Hill ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ :ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﻇﺎﺉﻒ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ: • ﺟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ، • ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼء ، • ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻬﺎ ، • ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ،ﻭ • ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ ﻟﻤﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ EVIDENCE-BASED MANAGEMENT: FACING HARD FACTS, REJECTING NONSENSE Evidence-based management is based on the belief that: • Facing the hard facts about what works and what doesn’t, • Understanding the dangerous half-truths that constitute so much conventional wisdom about management, and • Rejecting the total nonsense that too often passes for sound advice will help organizations perform better. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ :ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺣﻘﺎﺉﻖﻗﺎﺳﻴﺔ ،ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﺍء ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ: • ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺉﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ، • ﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺉﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ،ﻭ • ﺇﻥ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮﻩ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻮﺭﺓﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE SYSTEMS VIEWPOINT 1 • The Systems Viewpoint • The Four Parts of a System © McGraw Hill ﻭﺟﻬﺔﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ1 • ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ • ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE SYSTEMS VIEWPOINT 2 • Managers must understand how the different parts of an organization come together to achieve its goals in order to diagnose problems and develop effective solutions. • Even though a system may not work very well, it is nevertheless still a system. © McGraw Hill ﻭﺟﻬﺔﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ2 • ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔﻣﻌﺎً ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ. • ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ،ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎً. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE FOUR PARTS OF A SYSTEM • Systems may be open or closed. The four parts of a system are: 1. Inputs 2. Transformational processes 3. Outputs 4. Feedback © McGraw Hill • Synergy in a system creates an effect that is greater than the sum of individual efforts. • Systems viewpoint led to the development of Complexity Theory. ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍءﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ: .1ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼﺕ .2ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ .3ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ .4ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ • ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ. • ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺂﺯﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ. • ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ. FIGURE 2.2 THE FOUR PARTS OF A SYSTEM Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill CONTINGENCY VIEWPOINT • The contingency viewpoint began to develop when managers discovered that under some circumstances better results could be achieved by breaking the one-best-way rule. • The beauty, and simplicity, of contingency theory lies in the proposition that there is not one best way to manage. © McGraw Hill ﻧﻘﻄﺔﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ • ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺉﺞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝﻛﺴﺮ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ. • ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺑﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES • The Learning Organization: Sharing Knowledge and Modifying Behavior • High-Performance Work Practices • Shared Value and Sustainable Development: Going beyond Profits • Responsible Management Education: The United Nations Takes the Lead © McGraw Hill ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ • ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ :ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ • ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء • ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ :ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻝ :ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION: SHARING KNOWLEDGE AND MODIFYING BEHAVIOR • Keep on learning. • Individuals who embrace learning make the organization smarter and contribute to its growth. • A key challenge for managers, therefore, is to establish a culture of shared knowledge and values that will enhance their employees’ ability to learn. © McGraw Hill Three parts of a learning organization: 1. Creating and acquiring knowledge 2. Transferring knowledge 3. Modifying behavior ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ :ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ • ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ. • ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻀﺎﻥﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺫﻛﻰﻭﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﻫﺎ. • ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺉﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ، ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ،ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﺪﺭﺓﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ: .1ﺧﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ .2ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ .3ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK PRACTICES The job of management, according to this viewpoint, is to create human resource (HR) practices that foster employee development and overall wellbeing. High-performance work practices include: • Ability-enhancing practices • Motivation-enhancing practices • Opportunity-enhancing practices © McGraw Hill ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ،ﻭﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ،ﻫﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ) (HRﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺰﺯ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ. ﺗﺸﻤﻞﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ: • ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ • ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ • ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ SHARED VALUE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: GOING BEYOND PROFITS • Shared value and sustainable development look beyond short-term profits and focuses on the environmental and social costs of doing business. • Sustainable development focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. • Shared value and sustainable development is where business and sustainability intersect. © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ :ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ • ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ. • ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺱﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ. • ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: THE UNITED NATIONS TAKES THE LEAD • The growing importance of shared value and sustainable development has led the United Nations (UN) to tackle the issue. • In 2007, the organization launched Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME). • The mission of PRME is to “transform business and management education, research and thought leadership globally, while promoting awareness about the Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs], and developing the responsible business leaders of tomorrow.” © McGraw Hill ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ: ﺍﻷﻣﻢﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺯﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ • ﺃﺩﺕ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ. • ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ، 2007ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻝ).(PRME • ﻣﻬﻤﺔ PRMEﻫﻲ “ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ،ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ] ، [SDGsﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺓﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ”. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ CAREER CORNER: MANAGING YOUR CAREER READINESS 1 • Recruiters expect you to do some research, just as you would for a class assignment. • That’s good for both you and a potential employer because it helps identify the likely level of fit between the two of you. • Good fit, in turn, is associated with more positive work attitudes and task performance, lower intentions to quit, and less job-related stress. © McGraw Hill ﺭﻛﻦﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ :ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ1 • ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ،ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻞﻣﻊ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ. • ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻚ ﻭﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻤﺎ. • ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻼءﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪﺓ ،ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ،ﺑﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺍءﻣﻬﺎﻡ ،ﻭﻧﻮﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻺﻗﻼﻉ ،ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ FIGURE 2.3 MODEL OF CAREER READINESS Access text descriptions for image. © McGraw Hill CAREER CORNER: MANAGING YOUR CAREER READINESS 3 To demonstrate that you understand a business, you should learn the following 7 things about a company before showing up for an interview: 1. The company’s missions and vision statements 2. The company’s core values and culture 3. The history of the company 4. Key organizational players 5. The company’s products, service, and clients 6. Current events and accomplishments 7. Comments from current or previous employers © McGraw Hill ﺭﻛﻦﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ :ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ3 ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎً ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺎً ،ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ: .1ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ .2ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ .3ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ .4ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺉﻴﺴﻴﻮﻥ .5ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻼﺉﻬﺎ .6ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ .7ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻴﻦ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ Because learning changes everything. ® Week 2 (PPT2B) CHAPTER 3 THE MANAGER’S WORK ENVIRONMENT AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES Doing the Right Thing © 2022 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill. ©Olivier Renck/ Getty Images LEARNING OBJECTIVES 3-1 Describe the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profit. 3-2 Identify important stakeholders inside the organization. 3-3 Identify important stakeholders outside the organization. 3-4 Explain the importance of ethics and values in effective management. 3-5 Describe the concept of social responsibility and its role in today’s organizations. 3-6 Discuss the role of corporate governance in assessing management performance. 3-7 Describe how to develop the career readiness competency of professionalism/work ethic. © McGraw Hill ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ 3-1ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﻭ ﺭﺑﺢ. 3-2ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ. 3-3ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ. 3-4ﺍﺷﺮﺡ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ. 3-5ﻭﺻﻒ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ. 3-6ﻧﺎﻗﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍءﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ. 3-7ﺻﻒ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ /ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ MANAGE U: BEING COURAGEOUS AT WORK • Practice in a Low-Risk Setting • Plan for an Endurance Event • Rely on Self-Regulation after the Act of Courage © McGraw Hill ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ :Uﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺎﺩﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ • ﺗﺪﺭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺉﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ • ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ • ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE GOALS OF BUSINESS: MORE THAN MAKING MONEY The Triple Bottom Line: People, Planet, and Profit Younger Workers’ Search for Meaning © McGraw Hill ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ :ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺴﺐﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﺔ :ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﻭ ﺭﺑﺢ ﺑﺤﺚﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE: PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFIT • • © McGraw Hill In this view of corporate performance, an organization has a responsibility to its people, planet, and profit. Success in these areas can be measured through a social audit. ﺍﻟﺨﻂﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ :ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ،ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ • ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ،ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻮﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﻬﺎ. • ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ YOUNGER WORKERS’ SEARCH FOR MEANING • • • © McGraw Hill Millennials (born between 1981 and 1996) and Gen Zers (born after 1997) care about the triple bottom line. Younger workers expect more from the organizations they work for and do business with. These generations want things like meaningful work and products that represent their personal values more than older generations ever did. ﺑﺤﺚﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ • ﺟﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺪ 1981ﻭ (1996ﻭﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺯﻳﺮﺯ ) ﻭﻟﺪﺑﻌﺪ (1997ﻳﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ. • ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﺳﻨﺎً ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ. • ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺃﺷﻴﺎء ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﺳﻨﺎً. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE COMMUNITY OF STAKEHOLDERS INSIDE THE ORGANIZATION Internal and External Stakeholders Internal Stakeholders © McGraw Hill 7 ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﻮﻥ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ 7 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS • © McGraw Hill Managers operate in two organizational environments, both made up of various stakeholders. ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﻮﻥ • ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺉﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺘﻴﻦ ،ﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻜﻮﻥﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Large or small, your organization has people in it who have both an important stake in how it performs and the power to shape its future. • Employees • Owners • Board of Directors © McGraw Hill ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺗﻀﻢﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﻚ ،ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻡ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ،ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺻﺎً ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺉﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ. • ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ • ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ • ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﻴﻦ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE COMMUNITY OF STAKEHOLDERS Figure 3.1. Source: From Diverse Teams at Work by Lee Gardenswartz. Published by the Society for Human Resource Management. © McGraw Hill Access the text alternative for slide images. THE COMMUNITY OF STAKEHOLDERS OUTSIDE THE ORGANIZATION The Task Environment The General Environment © McGraw Hill 11 ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ 11 THE TASK ENVIRONMENT Task environment consists of 10 groups that interact with the organization on a regular basis. © McGraw Hill • Customers • Competitors • Suppliers • Distributors • Strategic Allies • Employee Organizations • Local Communities • Financial Institutions • Government Regulators • Special-Interest Groups ﺑﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﺉﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥﻣﻦ 10 ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞﻣﻊ ﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ • ﻋﻤﻼء • ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻦ • ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ • ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺯﻋﻴﻦ • ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻔﺎء ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﻮﻥ • ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ • ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ • ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ THE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT • • • © McGraw Hill The general environment includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political–legal, and international. You may be able to control some forces in the task environment, but you can’t control those in the general environment. As a manager you need to keep your eye on the far horizon because these forces of the general environment can affect long-term plans and decisions. ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ • ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺳﺖ ﻗﻮﻯ :ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ، ﻭﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ،ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ -ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ. • ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺉﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ،ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ. • ﻛﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺉﺔﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ THE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT: FIGURE 3.2 STATES WHERE MARIJUANA IS LEGAL Source: “State Medical Marijuana Laws,” National Conference of State Legislatures, October 16, 2019, https://www.ncsl.org/ research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx. Access the text description for slide image. © McGraw Hill THE ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES REQUIRED OF YOU AS A MANAGER Defining Ethics and Values Four Approaches to Resolving Ethical Dilemmas White-Collar Crime, SarbOx, and Ethical Training How Organizations Can Promote Ethics © McGraw Hill ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻚ ﻛﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﻀﻼﺕ ﺟﺮﺍﺉﻢﺍﻟﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء ، SarbOx ،ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻴﻒﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ DEFINING ETHICS AND VALUES Ethical standards may vary among countries and among cultures. Six most common workplace behaviors that are considered ethical misconduct. • Conflicts of interest • Abusive behaviors • Violations of health and safety regulations • Corruption • Discrimination • Sexual harassment Values and value systems are the underpinnings for ethics and ethical behavior. © McGraw Hill ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ. ﺳﺘﺔﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﺉﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺳﻮء ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ. • • • • • • ﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕﻣﺆﺫﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕﻟﻮﺍﺉﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺵﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺉﻢ ﻟﻸﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ DEFINING ETHICS AND VALUES: FIGURE 3.3 GLOBAL RATES OF UNETHICAL WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR Source: Ethics & Compliance Initiative, “2019 Global Business Ethics Survey: Workplace Misconduct and Reporting—a Global Look,” 2019, https://43wli92bfqd 835mbif2ms9qz-wpengine .netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/ uploads/Global-Business-Ethics- Survey-2019-Third-Report-1.pdf. Access text description for slide image. © McGraw Hill FOUR APPROACHES TO RESOLVING ETHICAL DILEMMAS The Utilitarian Approach: • For the Greatest Good The Individual Approach: • For Your Greatest Self-Interest Long Term, Which Will Help Others The Moral-Rights Approach: • Respecting Fundamental Rights Shared by Everyone The Justice Approach: • © McGraw Hill Respecting Impartial Standards of Fairness ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻟﻠﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻀﻼﺕﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞﺍﻟﻨﻔﻌﻲ: • ﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ: • ﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺞﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ: • ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺞﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ: • ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, SARBOX, AND ETHICAL TRAINING • Executives’ deceits generated a great deal of public outrage, and as a result Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. • Sarbanes–Oxley Act established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies. • It also requires companies to have established procedures and guidelines for audit committees. © McGraw Hill WHITE-COLLAR CRIME ، SARBOX، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ • ﺃﺩﺕ ﺧﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ،ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﺠﺮﺱ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﺭﺑﻴﻨﺰ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻠﻲ. • ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ Sarbanes-Oxleyﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺣﻔﻆﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ. • ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ. © ﻣﺎﻛﺠﺮﻭ ﻫﻴﻞ HOW ORGANIZATIONS CAN PROMOTE ETHICS Ethics needs to be an everyday affair, not a one-time thing. There are several ways an organization may promote high ethical standards: • Creating a strong ethical climate •…
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