0 Top Golf in India Bhargav Tippinayani Capstone Dr. William Hodde 05/12/2020 PROJECT 1 What is the proposed title of your project? Top Golf Course is an ultra-modern facility that aims at providing a first-class service to golfers in the major cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad in India. The primary business is the service fees, which are paid by golfers who are willing to register as members. The charges are initial contribution paid by any person who wants to use the facility. The registration fees account for a significant portion of business revenue, but they are not the only source of revenue. The golf course is also involved in selling/renting golf clubs and other equipment, foods and beverages, lessons, and clubs, and golf cart rentals. Describe the project you are proposing? The decision to develop golf courses is to cater to the up-surging interest in golfing in India and the provision of quality golfing facilities to the upcoming golfers. Developing a new golf course is a serious business that requires significant time, finances, resources, and money. Provide a problem statement (what is the general and specific problem of your study)? One step in developing a golf course is determining whether the project is viable. Naturally, the consideration of whether the project is viable lies on whether the facility is public or private. While the project site and development program are unique, the principles and strategies are constant (Wong, 2010). The main issue that underlies the project, which way will the management help the golfers develop a culture of golfing within the cities to attract more people into the facilities. Describe the benefits that this study will provide you in your practitioner life? There are various benefits in the study that are directly linked to the practitioner’s life—the most significant benefit it finding time to interact with well-established business people from PROJECT 2 various companies. As a golfer, it is important to interact with people on how to help improve social standards and uplift the levels of connections in the business world. There is no other sport were allows ample time for conversations and discovery of mutual interests. This study will help understand how the Indians society can establish as a golfers city. This game that corresponds with upper-middle-class persons in society is a socialization facility that can also be used as a tourist attraction center. Golf is played in a serene surrounding. One can decide to meet with clients in an office surrounded by water, nature, and serene surrounding instead of four-wall confinement. The golfing environment provides a relaxed and friendly environment where people can do business without any form of distractions. The environment is designed in a way that specific people can meet in the confinements of their privacy for matters concerning business. In the golfing arena, one can gain a lot of business intelligence (Thoms et al., 2017). The four hours of golfing can offer a great opportunity to understand different perspectives to a business that a lifetime. An interest in golfing can lift one’s friendships higher the corporate ladder. Friendships build around the golf last long because it is built on issues, and people move around new opportunities that open opportunities and new business adventures. Golf is a great way of opening doors by letting prospects and building contacts in the line of profession. Many people have built an amazing relationship around the world through the game. They were golfing as a game that fits people of all ages, backgrounds. The diversity of the game makes it an appropriate venture for both the golfers and club planners. In what ways will your project benefit the company? The club can gain money through the venture in various ways. First, taking golf lessons and buying clubs in the initial requirements of a golfer. The business can start by PROJECT 3 selling/renting the accessories to the people who want to venture to golf. The other venture is attaining income through golf course registration and training of new members. Apart from the registration of members and training of members, the establishment can initiate competition and inter and intra tournaments, which are income-generating ventures. Notably, the utilization of opportunities that come with golfing can n help the business create other related businesses that help the management expand the business to encompass other activities. Within the golfing activities are the tourism and hotel industry. The introduction of game tourism and clubbing can help to attract many people who have the same mission of enjoying golfing from different parts of the country. India being an expansive country can attract many people, especially middle-class earners, to enjoying the game as they venture to other activities. The interest of clubbing and touring helps make sure that people who enjoy golf interact extensively and help the club build its reputation as an international brand for golfers. Attracting international golfers is important for both the club owners and the registered golfers because they can create money through competitions. Describe how you will approach researching your company and topic? What kind of resources do you plan to use? A field survey is the basic research method helpful in gaining information from the public. A quantitative research method is the most appropriate approach because it quantifies data (McCarty, 2018). The approach is a sampled perspective that can project in scale to reflect a large group of society. By conducting specific polls for political trends, each respondent provides a specific answer that is accumulated and parsed. This mode of research is conclusive, objective, and definite. This approach helps to understand the interest of the people. The researches involve interviewing people and visiting golf clubs. Face to face PROJECT interviews helps understand the concept to follow when initiating a business and the possibility of a fast pickup. What skills and knowledge from your MBA program do you think you will utilize for this capstone? Most important skills attained in my MBA program that are essential is the project implementation include, leadership skills, adaptability to change, strategic thinking and planning abilities, teamwork, and global orientation. With these set of skills, I can initiate a project and oversee its raise to a fully running establishment. Knowledge in research finding and data analysis is also effective making the right decision on the type of project to initiate and how to initiate the project without incurring a lot of preventable economic costs. 4 PROJECT 5 References McCarty, L. (2018). Golf Course Construction and Renovation. Golf Turf Management, 151218. Thoms, A., Mertz, I., & Christians, N. (2017). Golf Course Fairway Organic Matter Management with Fraze Mowing. Wong, Z. (2010). Human factors in project management: Concepts, tools, and techniques for inspiring teamwork and motivation. John Wiley & Sons. Running head: INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT Introduction and Outline of the Project Bhargav Tippinayani United States University 05/20/2020 1 INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 2 Table of Contents Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 I. Project Title…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 I. Statement of the General Problem ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Opportunities in the Market (Up- surging interests in golfing in India) ……………………………………. 5 A. B. The high level of globalization in India ……………………………………………………………………………. 5 (ii) Provision of high quality golfing services …………………………………………………………………….. 6 Requirements to Explores the Opportunity …………………………………………………………………………… 7 Research Purpose and Specific Question …………………………………………………………………………………. 7 II. A. Research/ Project Purpose ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 B. Specific Question ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 III. Background of the Problem/ Benefit of the Project ……………………………………………………………….. 8 A. Interaction with well-established business people from various companies………………………………. 8 B. Understanding how Indian society can develop as a golfers city …………………………………………….. 8 C. Statement of the Specific Research Problem/ Rationale for the Project ……………………………………. 8 D. Promoting a culture of golfing to attract international golfers …………………………………………………. 9 IV. V. (i) Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 A. Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 B. Data Collection Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 3 Introduction Golf courses are one of the lucrative business opportunities in major cities throughout the world. There is entrepreneurship, franchising, employment, and other corporate independent operations aligned to the venture. It is a significant business venture in Asia, the most populous continent in the world (Top 100 Golf Courses, 2020, May 11). Although Japan, South Korea, and China are on top of the explored golf course markets, India has a significant market potential which must be explored right. In India, the golf venture has been a lucrative business with Royal Calcutta, Royal Bombay, and Bangalore Gulf Club established in 1829, 1849, and 1870s, respectively. Major cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad in India are important golf markets in the contemporary world. A golf course can be described as a teeing ground, fairway, and green piece of land with scattered obstacles in different locations either covered with grass and trees or sand lining the fairways in the deserts for golf play (Sewell, 2019). For Top Golf Course, the golf business is a lucrative venture. With an ultra-modern facility provision of first-class services to the golfers in Bangalore and Hyderabad, it will promote high sustainable development. There is an up-surging interest in a golf club in India hence an opportunity for expanding the golf courses in the cities. The provision of quality golf services is another important element in the eve of globalization. According to Jones et al. (2004), a private organization attracts more golfers through improved services to compete effectively in the market. Customer satisfaction is increasingly important in the sports service environment, particularly in the contemporary world. Establishing a community of highly satisfied customers is important by enhancing loyalty, increased service utilization, and exploring alternative products (Čáslavová et al., 2018). The increased globalization in India and INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 4 a multicultural system also enhances a unique set of opportunities to provide high-quality services to different cultures. Top Golf Course’s primary source of income is the service fees paid by the golfers’ registration to utilize the services as members. Although registration is a significant portion of the company revenue, it is not the only source of income. Top Golf Course also sells or rent golf clubs and other equipment and also sells food and beverages and golf cart rentals. For the organization to provide services in the expanding market and in better quality, it is an important investment that requires time, financial, human resources, and comprehensive knowledge of market and operations. For Top Golf Course to be competitive in the country, they must provide quality services and promote a strong brand within the most profitable markets. Despite the fact that the financial and expertise demands are high, the development of a new golf course is an important venture that Top Golf Course needs to explore and perform it effectively. This project focuses on developing a new golf course in Bangalore and Hyderabad by Top Golf Course to enhance high competitiveness. There is a need to effectively assess and determine the viability of the investment and the growth and sustainability opportunities. Outline I. Project Title A. Top Golf Course Ultra-Modern Facility to provide First-Class Services to Golfers in Bangalore and Hyderabad, India o Establishing a new golf course in the city o Promoting high-quality services through ultra-modern facilities o Top Golf Course establishing a culture of golfing in the city INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 5 o Top Golf Course providing a wide product portfolio that includes the use of the facility, selling/renting golf clubs and other equipment, foods and beverages, lessons, and clubs, and golf cart rentals. I. Statement of the General Problem A. Opportunities in the Market (Up- surging interests in golfing in India) (i) The high level of globalization in India • Creates opportunities for golf business in the large cities. • Global influence on tastes and preferences, especially for the emerging new middle class (Zhang et al., 2009) • Increased exposure of citizens to global information, and especially the middle class, leads to a significant shift in interests as the middle-class move from psychological needs to conspicuous needs. • Globalization increases the population’s desire to have a status and demonstrate delicacies and taste, wealth and prestige (Zhang et al., 2009). • There has been a significant emergence of golfers in China. India is another country that has experienced rapid economic growth through globalization. • There is also a significant change in culture and consumption patterns. • High level of globalization indicates there is a significant opportunity for expansion of golf services in India, as has been INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 6 demonstrated in China following changes in citizens’ tastes and consumption patterns and high disposable income. (ii) Provision of high quality golfing services • To the incoming new golfers in the large cities of India • Customer satisfaction is a significant factor in establishing competitiveness in the golf market. • Customer satisfaction has a direct implication on the growth and sustainability of a golf course for several reasons. In other words, when the golfers are satisfied: ❖ There is high loyalty for a long period ❖ They explore and buy new products introduced in the organization. ❖ They talk favorably on the quality and type of services available in the organization, enhancing expansion. ❖ Less focus on competing services and insensitivity to premium prices (Čáslavová et al., 2018). ❖ Provide the organization with ideas to enhance the improvement of the services. • Must understand the quality improvement opportunities to leverage the level of ultra-modern facilities. (iii). There is an opportunity to create a culture of golfing in the city. ❖ Golfing is a lifestyle that must be promoted to the upcoming generations. INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 7 B. Requirements to Explores the Opportunity o Exploring the new opportunities create critical demand for business o The requirements for establishing a golf course are widespread, including financial resources, human resources, among other critical requirements. II. Research Purpose and Specific Question A. Research/ Project Purpose o The general statement of purpose for the research is to determine whether opening a new golf course in the large cities of India is viable o The viability of a project is focusing on exploring whether the problem in the market can be solved successfully (feasibly) through the proposed solution. o Privatization of golf services is one of the most feasible opportunities in enhancing the provision of high quality golfing services that are aligned to citizens’ tastes and preferences. o There are constant principles and strategies in establishing new ventures and promoting a culture of golfing in a community (Wong, 2010). B. Specific Question ▪ Which way will the management help the golfers develop a culture of golfing within the cities to attract more people into the facilities? o What are the population (customers) interests in golfing services that the organization must satisfy to be successful in its venture? INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 8 III. Background of the Problem/ Benefit of the Project A. Interaction with well-established business people from various companies o Golfing helps promote a social environment for people who are well established in different business ventures. o A project is an important tool for improving social standards and improving the connection between different people in the city. o The game allows ample time for conservation and understanding the mutual interests. B. Understanding how Indian society can develop as a golfers city o This is by exploring the tastes and preferences of the middle-class people o Highlight community resources and opportunities, which can include building a tourist attraction center. A. Acquiring business intelligence o The project is an opportunity for privacy to meet and discuss different matters concerning business (Thoms et al., 2017). B. Lifting the friendship higher the corporate ladder o Create new opportunities for friendships which are relatively stable C. Statement of the Specific Research Problem/ Rationale for the Project A. A significant source of revenue for the company to enhance profitability o Membership fees, selling accessories, and promote inter and intra tournaments. o Expansion of the product portfolio through creation of closely related services INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 9 D. Promoting a culture of golfing to attract international golfers o Opportunity for game tourism and clubbing to attract golfers from different regions o The project will help attract new people in India and outside the country into a gaming community, establishing a competitive brand. IV. Data Collection A. Research Design o Utilize a quantitative study design to utilize a small sample to represent a larger group. B. Data Collection Method o A field survey o Interviewing people from the clubs (face to face) o Utilize different data finding techniques V. Data Analysis o This project requires utilizing skills on different quantitative analysis technique acquired in the MBA program o Descriptive statistics such as mean, median and mode will be utilized to illustrate the most common interests and preferences in the community. o Inferential statistics such as T-test will help compare different variables to establish relationships. INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE OF PROJECT 10 References Čáslavová, E., Pecinová, M., Ruda, T., & Šíma, M. (2018). Service quality in sport: A case study of golf resorts in the Liberec region. Acta Universitatis Carolinae. Kinanthropologica, 54(2), 137-148. Jones, S. A., Houghtalen, R. J., Jones, D. T., & Niblick, B. (2004). Privatization of municipal services: Sustainability issues of production and provision. Journal of infrastructure systems, 10(4), 139-148. Sewell, L. (2019). Golf Course Land Positive Effects on the Environment. Seattle Journal of Environmental Law, 9(1), 5. Thoms, A., Mertz, I., & Christians, N. (2017). Golf Course Fairway Organic Matter Management with Fraze Mowing. Top 100 Golf Courses. (2020, May 11). Top 100 Golf Courses of Asia 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2020, from https://www.top100golfcourses.com/news-item/top-100-golf-courses-of-asia2020 Wong, Z. (2010). Human factors in project management: Concepts, tools, and techniques for inspiring teamwork and motivation. John Wiley & Sons. Zhang, Y., Deng, J., Majumdar, S., & Zheng, B. (2009). Globalization of lifestyle: Golfing in China. In The New Middle Classes (pp. 143-158). Springer, Dordrecht. Running Head: BUSINESS PLAN 1 Business plan Bhargav Tippinayani United States University 05/28/2020 BUSINESS PLAN 2 Definition of the business Expanding Top Golf Course to India is a business opportunity to provide a first-class golfing service to golfers in the major cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad in India. Golf courses are highly successful business ventures in significant cities around the world. The enterprise provides significant opportunities for franchising, entrepreneurship, and other corporate operations aligned with the enterprise. Globalization has led to a change in the tastes and preferences of people in India. Just as globalization led to rapid population growth and to the rise in popularity in golfing, the same is bound to happen in neighboring India. As the economy grows, the people of India, primarily middle-class Indians, will experience a shift in their needs from psychological to conspicuous. They will begin to desire activities that show their wealth, prestige, and status. Golfing fills these requirements, and Top Golf Course will fill the gap in the market (Shimchik et al., 2019). The primary service that will be offered is the membership service where golfers can register to be members of Top Golf Course and gain entry into the course whenever they wish to do so. Other services that will be offered will be renting out or selling golf clubs and other equipment, selling food and beverages, and offering car rentals. The central technology that will be used by the golfers is the golf carts (Shimchik et al., 2019). Golf carts are relatively simple to manufacture and reach a maximum speed of 31Kmph, meaning that they are safe for use by the customers and do not need a lot of supervision. They also don’t need trained professionals to run them or to instruct the golfers on how to use them. The main advantage of golf carts is that they are considered electric vehicles with under 250W, which means that they are not categorized as motor vehicles and are not subject to transport rules in India. BUSINESS PLAN 3 Identify key markets Golfing has been one of the significant business opportunities in Asia for years. Having a large population has ensured that golf courses around Asia have a steady stream of customers throughout the year. Moreover, Japan, China, and South Korea have some of the most explored golf courses in the world. The golf course has also been lucrative in many parts of India for centuries, with golf courses like Royal Calcutta, Royal Bombay, Bangalore Golf Club still flourishing after being established in 1829, 1849, and the 1870s respectively. The cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad provide a large market for a first-class golf course that Top Golf Course can enter (Priya et al., 2017). Key competitors India has an established and rich Golfing culture with about 230 golf courses around the world. The cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad alone have five golf courses that Top Golf Course will compete with if it expands into the two cities (Sewell, 2019). The golf courses include Bangalore Golf Club, Eagleton, Hyderabad Golf Club, Karnataka Golf Association, and Prestige Golfshire. The golf courses offer a luxurious high-class experience for their golfers, and all of them feature 18 hole golf course. Country selection Indian Golfers are increasing the appeal of the game to people across the country. The country, however, still faces the problem of accessibility of golf courses to the public. Of the 230 golf courses, 100 of them are Defense-owned, meaning that Government officials exclusively use them. Most of the other golf clubs are highly elitist, and even the crème de la crème of Indian BUSINESS PLAN 4 Society may have to wait years before they are accepted. The rising number of middle-class households with disposable income is not catered for by the existing golf clubs (Sewell, 2019). India’s growing economy has increased the number of potential investors visiting the country. Many of these business executives have started combining their business trips with a round of golf in the many golf courses in the country. As the country’s economy grows, more and more tourists will flood the country, increasing the market for golf courses. The geographic scope of the golf course will be the cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad is located in South India (Chawla et al., 2018). The highest potential for tourism lies in the older generation, which is always growing in size in developing countries. The major deterrent for India as a destination for golf lovers has been due to the lack of golf courses which held with international standards. Top Golf Course aims to provide world-class facilities for all golfers from within India and tourists (Priya et al., 2017). Core strategy India is a multi-cultural nation with people from many different cultures. Indian people speak different languages, worship different gods, eat different types of food, but they all have one thing in common, their temperament (Chawla et al., 2018). All Indians, irrespective of their culture, wholeheartedly do everything so that whether they are grieving or celebrating, they are wholly in the moment, feeling the pain or joy. Indians are very proud of their culture, and Top Golf Courses should ensure that it keeps in line with all the rules and traditions of the country. The culture in India affects how Indians do business and the businesses they support. Breaking to the Indian market will require that the management team in charge of the project is well versed in the culture of the region. BUSINESS PLAN 5 Top Golf Course needs to pick a management team of flexible people who are willing to learn what is working with a completely different culture. Venturing into India unprepared can lead to a cultural shock, which may be catastrophic for the business. The management team should be simplified and should not hold any outdated ideas about business. The strategy used by the team should be simple and allow managers to be able to communicate with their employees (Sewell, 2019) efficiently. The management should key performance indicators (KPIs) to ensure that the course is performing as expected and to determine the areas that need improvement and those that are doing well. Some of the KPIs worth paying attention to are; occupancy percentage, revenue per available round, and average rate per round. These KPIs can inform managers of how well the course is doing and can help with deciding the appropriate pricing, operations management, and revenue management (Chawla et al., 2018). The golf course should use dynamic pricing to maximize the club’s revenue. The value of every tee time fluctuates depending on the time of day, and Top Golf Course needs to capture the full value of every booking. The modern dynamic pricing tools are much easier to use, making finding the perfect pricing tool more straightforward. Dynamic pricing will ensure that customers pay the optimal price irrespective of when they book or schedule their tee times. BUSINESS PLAN 6 References Chawla, S. L., Agnihotri, R., Desai, S., Patel, M. A., & Pawar, R. D. (2018). Turfgrass research and development in India. Progressive Horticulture, 50(1and2), 64-69. Priya, R., Bisht, R., Randhawa, P., Arora, M., Dolley, J., McGranahan, G., & Marshall, F. (2017). Local Environmentalism in Peri-Urban Spaces in India: Emergent Ecological Democracy?. Shimchik, I., Sagitov, A., Afanasyev, I., Matsuno, F., & Magid, E. (2016). Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 75, p. 09005). EDP Sciences. Sewell, L. (2019). Golf Course Land Positive Effects on the Environment. Seattle Journal of Environmental Law, 9(1), 5. Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review Bhargav Tippinayani United States University 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Literature Review According to KenResearch (2016), the Indian golf industry is developing tremendously due to increased globalization in the country. Studies show that golf has multiple positive influences on an economy by enabling growth of some sectors (López-Bonilla et al., 2020). Even if golf is at its infancy stage in India, it has been supported by the growing income level of middle-class individuals. For this reason, their purchasing power has improved, elevating the middle-class population. Hueber (2012) argues that this improvement in earnings levels has led to a surge in corporate events, media exposure, and greater sport participation by many people in the country. In India, golf tourism is developing in a successful business. According to Shimchik et al. (2019), India has established a rich golfing culture with over 230 golf courses around the world. There exist around eight to ten tour operatives tailoring India’s offers to fulfill the particular needs of golf-lovers around the globe. Apart from India, golf tourism is in high demand in other Asian countries. For instance, Indonesia and Cambodia have developing and inbound golf tourism markets (KenResearch, 2016). As a result, these countries can easily be accessed by tourists from Singapore. Priya et al. (2017) state that inbound tourism in India is still developing compared to other southeast Asian countries. Due to the increased globalization and multicultural nature of India, it has proven to a potential business country (López-Bonilla et al., 2020). The growth of the country’s economy has facilitated inbound tourism. According to Ersoy and Gülmez (2014), many investors have started joining their investments with golfing events on some popular turfs. Statistics indicate that money spent by tourists in India was substantial compared to money consumed worldwide (KenResearch, 2016). Consequently, research indicates that golf tourists use more money on LITERATURE REVIEW 3 their tours than general tourists. In general, the golf tourism industry in the country has the potential to grow exponentially. In 2014, India was graded 16th in terms of tourism earnings by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (KenResearch, 2016). Tourism organizations and travel agents across the globe started recognizing golf as a functional business with enormous potential. Additionally, the success of golf-based events overseas, where foreigners from various countries, including South Asian countries, travel to witness the events has led organizations to dedicate investments to golf-tourism. Researchers state that top-class golf courses in India will promote sustainable development from increased investments in the golf business segment (López-Bonilla et al., 2020). According to Top 100 Golf Courses (2020), the provision of quality golfing services in India is an essential element in the eve of globalization. According to Priya et al. (2017), the number of expert golfers traveling to India is at present low. However, Shimchik et al. (2019) state that India possesses vast potential in the coming years supported by the increasing golf competitions and the establishment of high-class golf courses in the country. The number of these high-class golf courses is expected to multiply in the coming years. Also, golf tourists visiting India has doubled over the past five years (KenResearch, 2016). The primary reason for such a development is due to the surge in the sum of high-class golf courses. Correspondingly, the reduction in packages pricing by the tour operatives has contributed to the upsurge in the number of golf tourists in the country. Golf tourism potential lies in the aging population. According to Priya et al. (2017), the aging populace is endlessly growing in size among most emerging nations. Even if India is not a preferred tourism destination by professional golfers, the increasing number of international standards golf courses is attracting a substantial amount of golf tourists to the country LITERATURE REVIEW 4 (KenResearch, 2016). Most developed countries are already established destinations for golf lovers. However, the multicultural nature of India provides them with an upper hand to become also an established golfing destination. In general, India is on the verge of becoming an emerging golf destination at an international level. According to Priya et al. (2017), the towns of Bangalore and Hyderabad provide a large market for the first-class golf course that international golfers can enter. Destination life-cycle (DLC) can be used to access tourist destinations. According to Bohte (2013), it is challenging to apply the concept of the life cycle to locations than on tourism products. The reason is due to the increased diversity of business in most countries and the fragmentation of markets and products. The same principle can be applied in India since it is a multicultural nation. As a result, most of its products and businesses are diversified. Multiple methods could be used to determine whether India has moved from one phase to the next concerning golf tourism (Butler, 2006). For example, the number of first-time visitors can be compared to the number of repeat visitors, the profit levels of golf tourism, and visitor arrivals, among other factors. However, this type of information is rarely available to tour operators. DLC provides a useful background to analyze the different phases of tourist development areas. By using this method, tour operators in India can identify some problems associated with the decline or stagnation of its golf tourism. Since golf tourism proves to a potential business venture in India, the DLC strategy can be used to analyze all the elements to be considered in every phase of the establishment of highclass golf courses. According to Shimchik et al. (2019), golf tourism in India provides significant opportunities in terms of entrepreneurship, franchising, and other corporate operations aligned with the development. Globalization has influenced the life preferences of many people in India LITERATURE REVIEW 5 (Zhang et al., 2009)). Across the globe, globalization has increased golfing popularity facilitating its growth (KenResearch, 2016). The same is bound to happen in India due to economic growth since Indians will experience a shift in their needs. For those interested in prestigious activities will start to desire to golf to show their status and wealth (Bohte, 2013). Golfing meets all these preferences, and it’s the best sporting activity that can fulfill their requirements. According to Chawla et al. (2018), destinations such as Bangalore and Hyderabad go through an evolution cycle similar to a product’s life cycle. That is, the number of visitors visiting a particular destination replaces product sales. The tourist area life cycle (TALC) will vary to each destination depending the development rate, accessibility, market trends, competing locations, and government policy (Butler, 2006). According to Bohte (2013), these factors can either accelerate progress or decelerate the progression of the establishment of any project through various stages. The development of the high-class golf courses in these destinations can be stopped at any stage of the DLC. Only those tourists’ establishments that promise substantial financial gains will continue to experience all the phases of the cycle (Bohte, 2013). To this end, the cycle itself and each stage’s length is variable. According to Bohte (2013), the benefit of TALC is that it provides a framework to comprehend how destinations and their markets evolve. That is, it assists in developing sustainable tourism and community-based strategies at the involvement stage. The implementation of some strategies and approaches at later phases may be inappropriate (Butler, 2006). Tourist destinations are also subject to supply-side aspects such as investment, tourism effects, planning responses, and capacity constraints. For instance, tourist destinations are dynamic and form a part of the evolving market. Therefore, investors need to consider the type of tourists with distinguishing preferences, desires surrounding the destination, motivations, and LITERATURE REVIEW 6 different numbers at each phase of the life cycle of the project (Bohte, 2013). However, studies indicate that TALC should be utilized to implement a conceptual framework. The method has many critics because of its deterministic approach and simplicity. As a framework to analyze the development of destinations and their relationship with market evolution, it can provide useful insights. Butler (2006), states that the application of the concept of tourism product life cycle to the development of India’s golf tourism indicates the product is in a stage of rapid growth. India needs to adjust its marketing strategy according to the specific stage of golf tourism development in the country. According to Bohte (2013), India needs to strategically examine its golf tourism market and exploit all the market opportunities. Besides that, the tour operators in the country should explore the strengths of the product in major cities of India. According to Butler (2006), a strategy that combines the marketing mix and product modification should bring about a positive impact on rejuvenating and repositioning the Indian golf tourism. Despite India being a multicultural nation with many people speaking different languages from various cultures, they share a standard temperament (Chawla et al., 2018). As a result, regardless of their differences in culture, they support economic growth, which is a boost for golf tourism in the nation. For an active establishment of high-class golf courses, the investors should ensure they keep in line with the country’s traditions. According to Chawla et al. (2018), culture influences which businesses Indians support and how they operate a business. Top Golf Courses must adhere to these rules no matter the challenges experienced in the project. LITERATURE REVIEW 7 References Bohte, L. (2013). Seasonality in tourism: introducing golf as a touristic segment in order to prolong a destination’s touristic season. project of Istria county in Croatia (Doctoral dissertation). Butler, R. (2006). The tourism area life cycle, Volume 1, Applications and Modifications. Bristol: Channel View Publications Chawla, S. L., Agnihotri, R., Desai, S., Patel, M. A., & Pawar, R. D. (2018). Turfgrass research and development in India. Progressive Horticulture, 50(1and2), 64-69. Ersoy, A., & Gülmez, M. (2014). A Research Towards the Development of Golf Tourism in Belek Region. Journal of International Social Research, 7(34). Hueber, D. (2012). The changing face of the game and golf’s-built environment. KenResearch. (2016). Number of Golf Courses in India, Case Study Golf India, Golf Tourism India, Economic Value Golf India, Sports Tourism Growth India. Retrieved 6 June 2020, from https://www.kenresearch.com/blog/2016/11/india-golf-residential-real-estateprojects/ López-Bonilla, L. M., Reyes-Rodríguez, M. D. C., & López-Bonilla, J. M. (2020). Golf Tourism and Sustainability: Content Analysis and Directions for Future Research. Sustainability, 12(9), 3616. Priya, R., Bisht, R., Randhawa, P., Arora, M., Dolley, J., McGranahan, G., & Marshall, F. (2017). Local Environmentalism in Peri-Urban Spaces in India: Emergent Ecological Democracy. LITERATURE REVIEW 8 Shimchik, I., Sagitov, A., Afanasyev, I., Matsuno, F., & Magid, E. (2016). Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 75, p. 09005). EDP Sciences. Top 100 Golf Courses. (2020, May 11). Top 100 Golf Courses of Asia 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2020, from https://www.top100golfcourses.com/news-item/top-100-golf-courses-of-asia2020 Zhang, Y., Deng, J., Majumdar, S., & Zheng, B. (2009). Globalization of lifestyle: Golfing in China. In the New Middle Classes (pp. 143-158). Springer, Dordrecht. Running head: GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS Golf Course PESTEL Analysis and SBA Bhargav Tippinayani United States University 06/15/2020 1 GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 2 Introduction With the business environment becoming more competitive, companies have been left with no option but to diversify their investments. Recently, the company’s board was handed a proposal to create world-class golf courses. The project dubbed the Top Golf Courses is designed to culminate in the construction of two high-quality ultra-modern facilities in the two Indian cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad. The idea borrows from the fact that golfing has proved to be a lucrative venture in major cities across the entire globe. India boasts of a large population, and leveraging these numbers could be a definitive factor in the success of the project. The creation of a standard golf course is a costly affair. The fact that the tabled proposal advocates for the construction of two courses calls for extensive analysis of the project’s viability. This paper constitutes an analysis of the Top Golf Courses Project’s viability using the PESTEL model and the Strategic Business Areas Segmentation. PESTEL Analysis An entrepreneurial venture is subject to multiple forces both within the company and the external environment. A business has a more significant chance of success if it evaluates the opportunities, advantages, and obstacles that exist in the business landscape. Researchers have developed numerous tools to help business entities assess their situation in the market, and PESTEL is one such model. The term is an acronym whose composing letters denote the six areas of concern in the corporate world (Yusop, 2018). These aspects are Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal influences. Political GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 3 The project to construct golf courses in two Indian cities is subject to the federal government and the local authorities’ authorization. Such approval may only be acquired upon the satisfaction of political and administrative issues that reflect the government’s interests. For instance, the planning and zoning of areas within the cities may determine whether the creation of a golf course is one of the permissible uses of land. A change in government policies may affect their plans to construct these golf courses. Another political factor that is worth considering is stability within the country. India is a relatively stable country, and as a democracy, power is transferred smoothly from one government regime to another. Such political stability is conducive for business ventures because the relative calm allows businesses to run. However, corruption is a significant challenge within the country’s political setup, and the company may face many obstacles while attempting to get licensure. Economic India is a stable economy, and major cities tend to have significant economic activity. In this regard, researchers and economists have studied the golfing landscape in India, and they have established that golf tourism is a concept whose popularity in India is growing (Shimchik et al., 2016). Furthermore, economic thinktanks ranked India 16th in the list of the most conducive business environments for golfing (KenResearch, 2016). Whereas such statistics assert the economic viability of golfing ventures, they also show that the business climate has grown more competitive. The two cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad alone boast of at least five world-class golf courses (Sewell, 2019). The company must, therefore, brace itself for stiff competition from rivals. Social GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 4 Golf is a sport often associated with prestige and high social status (Shimchik et al., 2016). This association explains why golf courses are usually found in posh neighborhoods. India finds itself at the center of a strong wave of globalization with multiple cultural influences from all over the world. Cultural tourism is now an established activity in India, posing the potential for increased love for golfing in the future. The growth of the Indian economy has coincided with rapid social mobility. As people become more economically empowered, they are bound to adopt more classy pass times like golfing. Hence, an ever-growing middle class translates to the increased likelihood of the Top Golf Courses Project’s success. Technological Technology has had a far-reaching impact on various facets of business and societal interactions. Technology has gone on to define the golfing landscape with new high-quality turfs being created to facilitate a fuller experience (Breitbarth et al., 2017). The technology couldn’t have come at a better time for Top Golf Courses because it will be less costly and take a shorter time to implement. In addition to the global scale technological innovations, India has a reputation for its vibrant IT sector. This venture can leverage creativity in the local market to make the project better. The company can also use online platforms to build a strong customer base and to offer golfing lessons to interested persons. Environmental Bangalore and Hyderabad are cities that have pleasant weather for significant parts of the year, with only two moths recording very low temperatures. This means that golfing operations shall be in full swing for most parts of the year, with the company only investing in additional measures for comfort during the short cold seasons. In the broader front, the world has been GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 5 moving towards increased conservation of the environment, and this wave of environmentalism has found expression in sporting business practices like golf (Nguyen, 2017). Therefore, Top Golf Courses need to make their operations environmentally friendly. The Indian regime requires companies to put in measures to mitigate adverse environmental effects of their activities, like pollution. Legal The Indian legal system is modeled on English common law; hence the company’s legal office can refer to various authorities in advance and shape the venture to meet the threshold. In most issues, adherence to English and US law principles is sufficient because there are common grounds in the jurisdictions’ laws on employment and discrimination. However, India does not have a robust intellectual property enforcement regime. Consequently, the company will have to invest significantly to ensure that it can protect its IP rights from infringement. Strategic Business Areas (SBAs) Segmentation As demonstrated by the PESTEL analysis in the previous section, the external business environment is characterized by numerous uncertainties. As a consequence, business entities have to develop multiple strategies to target different segments of their potential market (Ilyin & Teslya, 2016). In this instance, Top Golf Courses’ SBA will be operationalized in two strategic business units (SBUs) in each city. The dichotomy shall be evaluated using a four-pronged typology comprising Business Plan Need(s), Technology(ies), Customer Types, Geographic Locations. Business Plan Needs GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 6 The sustainability of the business depends on its capacity to interact with a sizeable customer base and promote people’s interest in golf. The business plan is pegged on, making people associate with the golfing experience and embrace a willingness to learn it. Technologies The company shall utilize the internet and social media platforms to reach out to the younger demographic in society because the sheer numbers of this population can propel the project to profitability. The Indian technological landscape has undergone immense progress in research and development, especially concerning artificial turfs (Chawla et al., 2018). The organization shall leverage local innovations in India to facilitate the creation of world-class courses at cheaper costs. Customer Types The Top Golf Enterprise targets clients from affluent and middle-class backgrounds. Golf is a sport that has been associated with prestige, and for this reason, most affluent people associate themselves with it. In view of the rapid social mobility in India, the company can start planning for the future by tapping into the middle class whose exponential rise. Golf enterprises in the world have had to conduct further market segmentation to cater to people’s varying needs (Rankin et al., 2017). The company shall provide an outdoor experience, fitness regimes for enthusiasts, and learning courses for those who take golf as a leisure activity. Geographical Location The two SBUs shall be located in the two cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad. While the two cities are close, segmenting the operations of the company will improve operational GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 7 efficiency. Furthermore, giving decisional independence to the management of each segment is essential in helping the company adapt to the market’s variances. Conclusion Top Golf Courses is an ambitious project with immense potential for bringing profitability to the company. In preparation for this venture, the company had to analyze its external environment to gauge its viability. From the analysis, it is evident that the project is sustainable, although it requires immense resources in both money, technology, and personnel. GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS 8 References Breitbarth, T., Kaiser-Jovy, S., & Dickson, G. (2017). Global golf business and management: Market issues and career prospects. In Golf business and management (pp. 2–19). Routledge. Chawla, S. L., Agnihotri, R., Desai, S., Patel, M. A., & Pawar, R. D. (2018). Turfgrass research and development in India. Progressive Horticulture, 50(1and2), 64–69. Ilyin, I. V., & Teslya, A. B. (2016). Strategic business areas as a mechanism for coordinating stakeholder interests when managing a company’s project portfolio. НаучноТехнические Ведомости Санкт-Петербургского Государственного Политехнического Университета. Экономические Науки, 2 (240), Article 2 (240). https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/strategic-business-areas-as-a-mechanism-forcoordinating-stakeholder-interests-when-managing-a-company-s-project-portfolio KenResearch. (2016). Number of Golf Courses in India, Case Study Golf India, Golf Tourism India, Economic Value Golf India, Sports Tourism Growth India. Retrieved 16 June 2020, from https://www.kenresearch.com/blog/2016/11/india-golf-residential-real-estateprojects/ Nguyen, S. N. (2017). Sustainability and environmental impact of golf. In Golf Business and Management (pp. 68–81). Routledge. Rankin, A., Bakir, A., & Bullock, E. (2017). Golf consumption. In Golf business and management (pp. 20–34). Routledge. Sewell, L. (2019). Golf Course Land Positive Effects on the Environment. Seattle Journal of Environmental Law, 9(1), 5. GOLF COURSE PLAN ANALYSIS Shimchik, I., Sagitov, A., Afanasyev, I., Matsuno, F., & Magid, E. (2016). Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo. MATEC Web of Conferences, 75, 09005. Yusop, Z. B. M. (2018). PESTEL analysis. COMRAP, 2018, 34. 9

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