Case study 1
The attending physician is thinking that Mr. J.R. has developed an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Analyzing the case presented, name the possible types of Acute Kidney Injury.
Mr. J.R.’s symptoms, which included a metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness due to a lack of energy, were consistent with acute renal damage, according to the available data. (AKI). Acute kidney injury (AKI) or acute renal failure is a medical condition defined by an abrupt loss of kidney function. (ARF). The kidney’s primary job is waste disposal, but it also manages the blood’s water, salt, mineral, and electrolyte balance. (Verma & Kuragayala, 2022). Renal failure is associated with significant problems caused by the body’s buildup of wastes, fluids, and electrolytes. AKI may be caused by a significant reduction in blood flow to the kidneys, a blockage inside the kidneys (such as kidney stones), or the use of many kidney-damaging medicines. The underlying cause of acute renal impairment is used to classify the condition. Acute renal failure is classified as either prerenal, renal intrinsic, or postrenal.
Link the clinical manifestations described to the different types of Acute Kidney injury.
Acute prerenal kidney damage may impede blood flow to the kidneys. The glomerular filtration rate is reduced due to reduced blood flow to the kidneys. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate is one method for determining the kidneys’ filtration capacity. (GFR). (GFR). Several medical conditions, such as dehydration, low blood pressure, liver failure, and heart failure, may cause a lack of blood flow to the kidneys. The inability of the kidney to properly filter blood and produce urine characterizes acute kidney damage caused by intrinsic renal dysfunction. Tacrolimus, glomerulonephritis, and blood clots in kidney tissue and cells may all induce acute kidney injury. (AKI). (Sluman et al., 2020). When the kidneys cannot eliminate waste materials quickly, postrenal acute kidney damage (AKI) occurs. Urinary system cancer, kidney stones, bladder cancer, and an enlarged prostate are just some diseases and ailments that may cause urination problems. According to what we know, Mr. J.R. There is both intrinsic and prerenal acute kidney injury. Reduced volume, such as that induced by more than 48 hours of vomiting and diarrhea, may cause acute kidney injury in the prerenal phase. This would result in an electrolyte imbalance and a metallic sensation on the tongue.
Create a list of risk factors the patient might have and explain why.
There have been reports of hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and reduced blood volume. Hypovolemia occurs when the body’s blood flow is reduced due to actions such as vomiting and diarrhea. (Sluman et al., 2020). Before being admitted to the hospital, Mr. J.R. suffered from severe diarrhea and vomiting for two days. One of the major risk factors for developing deep vein thrombosis is age. (DVT). People above the age of sixty are more prone to DVT; Mr. J.R.’s risk of developing a DVT is enhanced since he is 73. Mr. J.R.’s blood pressure may have increased because his heart had to work harder to send blood to his kidneys. Hypertension is defined by continuously high blood pressure inside the blood vessels.
Unfortunately, the damage to J.R.’s kidney became irreversible and he is now diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Please describe the complications that the patient might have on his Hematologic system (Coagulopathy and Anemia) and the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved.
Chronic renal disease, which also affects the hematological system, may cause permanent or temporary kidney damage. Reduced erythropoietin production is linked to a decrease in the kidney’s ability to perform their duties. Erythropoietin is essential for the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. A decrease in RBC count causes anemia. Patients with chronic renal illness have abnormally high levels of the protein fibrinogen, which leads to coagulopathy and the formation of fragile clots. Mr. J.R. Pallor’s weariness, vertigo, and weakness are some of the symptoms of anemia. High fibrinogen levels in chronic renal failure impact coagulopathy and result in the formation of thick clots. These clumpy clots are renowned for being difficult to remove and have been linked to an increased risk of thrombotic problems.
Case study 2
According to the case presented, including the clinical manifestations and microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge, what is the most probable diagnosis for Ms. P.C.? Support your answer and explain why you get to that diagnosis.
According to the data, the most likely diagnosis for Ms. P.C. is an inflammatory pelvic condition. (PID). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the most dangerous to a woman’s reproductive health. (PID). Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea may induce PID illness. This may happen in a variety of settings. A very deadly STI has been raised. Unprotected sexual activity causes more than 85 percent of all pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) cases in women in the United States. As a result, bacteria infiltrate the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. (Parmar et al., 2021). Ms. P.C. was diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease is feasible for various reasons. According to the evidence, she is a 19-year-old woman who engages in sexual conduct. She is more likely to develop pelvic inflammatory disease since she had unprotected sexual intercourse with someone about whom she knows nothing about their history of genitourinary tract infections. Ms. is between the reproductive ages of 17 and 45, putting her at risk for polycystic ovarian syndrome. (PID). PID affects an estimated three million women in the United States.
Lower abdomen discomfort, fever, nausea, and an increase in vaginal discharge are the most common symptoms of PID based on the facts provided, Ms. P.C. A patient should be checked for PID if they have lower abdomen discomfort, nausea, vomiting, and a strong odorous vaginal discharge for two days. Ms. P.C. Similar symptoms include a strange, foul-smelling, thick, greenish-yellow vaginal discharge. PID is also related to atypical vaginal discharge, often smelly and yellow-green. When diplococci overrun healthy vaginal flora, the vaginal pH changes, resulting in excess greenish-yellow discharge with a characteristic odor. (Plagens-Rotman et al., 2021). Positive gram-negative intracellular diplococci results and changes in vaginal pH suggest a systemic infection, but a rise in white blood cell (WBC) count indicates a local infection. Ms. P.C. demonstrated that an imbalance in healthy vaginal flora causes unpleasant vaginal discharge.
Based on the vaginal discharge described and the microscopic examination of the sample, could you suggest which would be the microorganism involved?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae was found on white blood cells and gram-negative intracellular diplococci during a microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge. Under a microscope, it is clear that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a Gram-negative, pair-forming coccus. This bacterial species produces no spores. (diplococci). Because the germ is immobile, it can only travel from person to person. Its spread may cause sexually transmitted diseases, including gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory disease. (PID). The immune system creates antibodies and white blood cells (WBC) at the site of infection in response to the possibility that this kind of bacteria would cause an infection, resulting in a positive WBC test result.
Name the criteria you would use to recommend hospitalization for this patient.
Patients suffering discomfort with cervical mobility should be admitted to the hospital. Pain in the cervix brought on by movement is a typical symptom of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and a common finding on physical examinations. In addition to these characteristics are a high concentration of C-reactive protein, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, uterine tenderness, a positive endometrial biopsy, laparoscopic abnormalities, and a mucopurulent discharge from the cervical canal, and the presence of white blood cells in a saline preparation of vaginal secretions are required.
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