7-1 CHAPTER 7 Pricing and Service Decisions e Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives 11/3/11 Version Among the most important uses of managerial accounting information are establishing the price and discounts on a service and, given a price, estimating whether or not the service will be profitable. Because such decisions have a direct effect on providers’ profitability, and hence financial condition, they play a key role in mission performance. 7-2 Price Setters Versus Takers ■ When a provider has market dominance, and hence can set its own prices (within reason), it is said to be a price setter. ■ In other situations, providers are price takers: ● Perfectly competitive markets ● Payer dominance ● Government programs ■ However, in many situations providers are neither pure price takers nor price setters and room for negotiation exists. 7-3 Pricing Strategies ■ When a provider is a price setter (or when negotiation is possible), there are several theoretical bases upon which prices can be set. ■ The two most common are: ● Full cost pricing ● Marginal cost pricing 7-4 Full Cost Pricing ■ Under full cost pricing, prices for a service are set to cover all costs: ● Direct variable costs ● Direct fixed costs ● Overhead (indirect) costs ■ In addition, a profit component typically is added. ● How easy is it to measure full costs? 7-5 Marginal Cost Pricing ■ Under marginal cost pricing, prices for a service are set to cover incremental, or marginal, costs. Generally, this means recovering only direct variable costs. ● Can a provider survive if all services are priced at marginal cost? ● What is cross-subsidization, or price shifting? ● Should marginal cost pricing ever be used? 7-6 Target Costing ■ Target costing is a management strategy used by price takers. ■ Under target costing: ● Revenues are projected assuming prices as given in the marketplace. ● Required profits are subtracted from revenues. ● The remainder is the target cost level. ● What is the primary benefit of target costing? 7-7 Setting Prices on Individual Services ■ Assume Windsor Clinic plans to offer a new outpatient service. ■ Projected data: ● Variable cost per visit ● Annual direct fixed costs ● Annual overhead allocation ● Number of visits $10 $100,000 $25,000 5,000 ■ What price must be set to achieve accounting breakeven (zero profit)? To achieve economic breakeven? 7-8 Price Required for Accounting BE Total revenues – Total costs = $0 Total revenues – Total VC – Direct fixed costs – Overhead = $0 (5,000 x P) – (5,000 x $10) – $100,000 – $25,000 = $0 (5,000 x P) – $175,000 = $0 5,000 x P = $175,000 P = $175,000 ÷ 5,000 = $35. 7-9 Price Required for $100,000 Profit Total revenues – Total VC – Direct fixed costs – Overhead = $100,000 (5,000 x P) – (5,000 x $10) – $100,000 – $25,000 = $100,000 (5,000 x P) – $175,000 = $100,000 5,000 x P = $275,000 P = $275,000 ÷ 5,000 = $55. 7 – 10 Discussion Items ■ What price would be set under marginal cost pricing? ■ What are the primary problems inherent in price setting analyses of this type? 7 – 11 Setting Prices Under Capitation ■ Montana Medical Center (MMC) has 1,400 admissions from one chargebased (FFS) payer with 15,000 members. ■ Relevant financial data: ● Average rev/per admission = $ 10,000. ● Average VC/per admission = $ 3,000. ● Direct FC and overhead = $9,000,000. ■ The payer wants to move to capitation. What rate must be set on these patients to achieve the current profit? 7 – 12 Current P&L Statement Total revenues ($10,000 x 1,400) Total VC ($3,000 x 1,400) $14,000,000 4,200,000 Total CM ($7,000 x 1,400) $ 9,800,000 Direct FC and overhead Profit 9,000,000 $ 800,000 7 – 13 Setting Prices Under Capitation (Cont.) ■ All else the same, MMC needs to obtain the same total revenues, $14,000,000. ■ This amount of annual revenues must be obtained from 15,000 enrollees: $14,000,000 ÷ 15,000 = $933.33 per member. ■ But, capitation rates are quoted on a per member per month (PMPM) basis: $933.33 ÷ 12 = $77.78 PMPM. 7 – 14 Projected P&L Statement Total rev. ($77.78 x 15,000 x 12) Total VC ($3,000 x 1,400) $14,000,000 4,200,000 Total CM $ 9,800,000 Direct FC and overhead Profit 9,000,000 $ 800,000 7 – 15 Scenario Analysis ■ Note that the admission rate was assumed to remain unchanged at: 1,400 ÷ 15,000 = 0.0933 per member. ■ Before making a decision, MMC should analyze alternative scenarios, a technique called scenario analysis. ■ What profit would result if a utilization management program reduced the admission rate to 0.08 admissions per enrollee? 7 – 16 Scenario Analysis (Cont.) ■ If utilization were reduced, the number of admissions would fall from 1,400 to: 15,000 x 0.08 = 1,200. ■ Therefore, variable costs would fall by: 200 x $3,000 = $600,000. ■ At $77.78 PMPM, profit would increase to: $800,000 + $600,000 = $1,400,000. 7 – 17 Projected P&L Statement Total revenues ($77.78 x 15,000 x 12) $14,000,000 Total VC ($3,000 x 1,200) Total CM Direct FC and overhead Profit 3,600,000 $10,400,000 9,000,000 $ 1,400,000 ● Should the direct fixed costs and overhead be adjusted for the utilization change? ● Assume the utilization management program costs $100,000. Should it be undertaken? 7 – 18 Scenario Analysis (Cont.) Assume now that MMC wants to share some of the utilization management program gains with the payer. What PMPM maintains the contract profit at $800,000? Now, revenue could fall by $600,000 to $13,400,000: $13,400,000 ÷ 15,000 = $893.33 per member. On a PMPM basis: $893.33 ÷ 12 = $74.44 PMPM. 7 – 19 Projected P&L Statement Total revenues ($74.44 x 15,000 x 12) $13,400,000 Total VC ($3,000 x 1,200) 3,600,000 Total CM $ 9,800,000 Direct FC and overhead Profit 9,000,000 $ 800,000 7 – 20 Setting Managed Care Plan Rates ■ Managed care plans must set the rates they charge to employers on the basis of their costs of providing healthcare services. ■ In general, the rates for different services are estimated and then aggregated. ■ This is usually done on a PMPM basis regardless of the actual reimbursement methods used to pay providers. 7 – 21 Setting Managed Care Plan Rates (Cont.) ■ There are three techniques used to set the rates for individual providers: ● Fee-for-service (FFS) approach ● Cost approach ● Demographic approach ■ In addition to covering services provided, managed care plans must incorporate administrative costs and profits (reserves) into the PMPM rate. 7 – 22 FFS Approach ■ To illustrate the FFS method, assume that BetterCare HMO targets 350 inpatient days for each 1,000 members of an employee group, or 350 ÷ 1,000 = 0.350 per member. ■ Furthermore, previous experience in the service area indicates that a fair hospital FFS (per diem) rate is $1,000 per day. ● What drives the utilization assumption? 7 – 23 FFS Approach (Cont.) PM utilization rate x FFS rate Inpatient cost = 12 0.350 x $1,000 = 12 = $29.17 PMPM. 7 – 24 Cost Approach ■ Assume each enrollee will make 3 visits per year to a primary care physician (PCP). ■ Each PCP can handle 4,000 patient visits per year. ■ PCPs are compensated at an annual rate of $175,000. 7 – 25 Cost Approach (Cont.) ■ Each member will require 3 ÷ 4,000 = 0.00075 PCPs. ■ The annual per member PCP cost is 0.00075 x $175,000 = $131.25. ■ Thus, the PMPM for PCP professional fees is $131.25 ÷ 12 = $10.94. ■ Note that in practice it is common to conduct the pricing analysis on the basis of 1,000 members. 7 – 26 Total Physician Costs ■ Total physician costs (shown on the next slide) include: ● Physician compensation ● Support staff compensation ● Supplies ● Overhead ■ In addition, an amount for practice profit is included. ■ Finally, an amount is added for referrals outside the HMO panel. 7 – 27 Total Physician Costs (Cont.) Primary care Specialist care Support staff Supplies Overhead Subtotal Profit (10%) In-area total Outside referrals Total $10.94 PMPM 14.20 6.67 3.50 6.00 $41.31 PMPM 4.13 $45.44 PMPM 3.40 $48.84 PMPM 7 – 28 Demographic Approach (PMPM) Demographics Primary Care Age Band Male Female Male Female 0-1 1.9% 1.9% $47.00 $47.00 2-4 2.8 2.8 20.25 20.25 5-19 12.4 12.4 11.04 11.04 20-29 11.4 15.4 10.53 15.92 30-39 9.6 10.0 13.04 17.56 40-49 5.3 5.7 16.40 19.56 50-59 3.6 3.6 20.74 22.74 60+ 0.7 0.5 24.93 25.60 Male/female cost $ 7.07 $ 9.10 Total service cost $16.17 7 – 29 Total Premium Calculation Clinical Costs: Hospital inpatient $ 27.35 PMPM Other institutional 9.12 Pharmacy and DME benefits 7.00 Physician care 48.84 Total medical care costs $ 92.31 PMPM HMO Costs: Administration $ 13.85 PMPM Profit/Reserves 2.05 Total HMO costs $ 15.90 PMPM Total premium $108.21 PMPM 7 – 30 Using RVUs to Set Prices ■ Relative value units (RVUs) measure the relative amount of resources consumed to provide a particular service. ■ They form the basis for Medicare’s RBRVS (Resource Based Relative Value System) for physician reimbursement. ■ We will use a laboratory setting to illustrate the use of RVUs to set prices. 7 – 31 Using RVUs to Set Prices (Cont.) ■ To begin, the value of one RVU must be defined. For example, it might include: ● 10 minutes of technician time ● $1 of supplies ● $20 of equipment usage ● And so on ■ Then, the number of RVUs for each activity (test) are established. ■ Finally, total annual costs and RVUs are estimated. 7 – 32 Laboratory Annual Estimates Test Number of Number of RVUs Tests Total RVUs Urinalysis 5 5,000 25,000 Blood typing 10 4,000 40,000 Blood cell count 50 1,000 50,000 Tissue analysis 200 250 50,000 165,000 Total annual costs = $250,000. 7 – 33 Finding the Cost and Price per RVU Total annual costs Cost per RVU = Total number of RVUs $250,000 = 165,000 = $1.52 per RVU. To add a 25% markup, Price = $1.52 x 1.25 = $1.90 per RVU. 7 – 34 Setting Test Prices Test Number Price of RVUs per RVU Test Price Urinalysis 5 $1.90 $ 9.50 Blood typing 10 1.90 19.00 Blood cell count 50 1.90 95.00 Tissue analysis 200 1.90 380.00 7 – 35 Service Decisions ■ Service decisions are analyzed in a similar manner. The difference is that the revenue rate is given, and the provider must determine whether or not its cost structure will permit a profit to be earned. ● Why is scenario analysis so important in pricing and service decision analyses? Chapter 5 Excel Table – SOLVING FOR VOLUME Breakeven Volume = Fixed Costs/Contribution Margin Revenue Per Unit 100 Variable Cost Per Unit 28.18 Contribtion Margin 71.82 volume 75000 Breakeven Volume (With Profit) = (Fixed Costs+Profit)/Contribution Margin Revenue Per Unit 100 Variable Cost Per Unit 28.18 Contribtion Margin 71.82 volume 75000 Profit 100000 Total Revenue Total Variable Costs Fixed Costs Total Revenue Total Variable Costs Fixed Costs Volume 7500000 2113500 4967462 69,165 visits Volume 7500000 2113500 4967462 70,558 visits Chapter 7 Excel Table – SOLVING FOR PRICE Windsor Clinic new outpatient service What price must be set to break even? Projected Data: Variable cost per visit $ 10 Annual direct fixed costs $ 100,000 Annual overhead allocation $ 25,000 Number of visits 5,000 Profit $ – Price Required for Accounting Breakeven Total Revenue – Total Costs = 0 Total Variable Cost $ 50,000 Annual Direct and Overhead $ 125,000 TOTAL COSTS $ 175,000 volume 5000 Price = Volume/Total Costs $ 35 Price Required for $100,000 Profit Total Revenue – Total Costs – Profit = 0 Total Variable Cost $ 50,000 Annual Direct and Overhead $ 125,000 Profit $ 100,000 TOTAL COSTS $ 275,000 volume 5000 Price = Volume/Total Costs $ 55 Chapter 7 Excel Table – SOLVING FOR PRICE Montana Medical Center has 1400 admissions from one charge-based FFS payer with 15,000 members Relevant financial data: average revenue per admission average variable cost per admissions direct fixed costs and overhead number of admissions $ $ $ 10,000 3,000 9,000,000 1,400 MMC P&L Total Revenue = 10,000 x 1400 Total Variable Costs = 3000 x 1400 Total Contribution Margin = 7,000 x 1400 Direct FC and Overhead Profit $ 14,000,000 $ 4,200,000 $ 9,800,000 $ 9,000,000 $ 800,000 Shift to Capitation for these 15000 members Revenue Total per member annually TOTAL PER MEMBER PER MONTH (PMPM) 15,000 $ 14,000,000 $ 933.33 $ 77.78 average revenue per admission average variable cost per admissions direct fixed costs and overhead number of admissions MMC P&L Total Revenue = 77.78 x 15,000 x 12 Total Variable Costs = 3000 x 1200 Total Contribution Margin = 7,000 x 1400 Direct FC and Overhead Profit $ $ $ 10,000 3,000 9,000,000 1,200 $ 14,000,000 $ 3,600,000 $ 10,400,000 $ 9,000,000 $ 1,400,000 Setting Managed Care Plan Rates FFS Approach inpatient days members ratio FFS per diem inpatient cost = $ 350 1000 0.35 per member 1,000 Per Member Util Rate x FFS rate/12 = .35 x 1000/12 $29 per member per month Cost Approach 3 visits to physician per member annually each PCP can handle 4,000 visits annually PCPs earn $175,000 annually PCP time =3/4,000 = .00075 PCPs = .00075 * $175,000 =$ 131.25 / 12 =$ 10.94 per member per month Demographic Approach uses FFS scheme to calculate costs based on demographics Problem 5 – Chapter 7 PROBLEM 7.1(ab) Assume that the managers of Fort Winston Hospital are setting the price on a new outpatient service. Here are the relevant data estimates: Variable cost per visit Annual direct fixed costs Annual overhead allocation Expected annual utilization 7.1(a) $ 5 $ 500.000 $ 50.000 10.000 What per-visit price must be set for the service to break even? To earn an annual profit of $100,000? Total Variable Cost Annual Direct and Overhead TOTAL COSTS volume $ 10000 Price = Total Costs/Volume 7.1(b) Total Variable Cost Annual Direct and Overhead Profit TOTAL COSTS volume Price = Total Costs/Volume Repeat Part a, above but assume that the variable cost per visit is $10. Total Variable Cost Annual Direct and Overhead TOTAL COSTS volume Price = Total Costs/Volume $ 10000 Total Variable Cost Annual Direct and Overhead Profit TOTAL COSTS volume Price = Total Costs/Volume rofit of $100,000? $ 10000 $ 10000 Problem 5 – Chapter 7 PROBLEM 7.2(a) The audiology department at Randall Clinic offers many services to the clinic’s patients. The three most common, along with cost and utilization data are as follows: Variable cost per service Department basic examination $ advanced examination$ therapy session $ 7.2(a) Annual number of visits Annual direct fixed costs 5 $ 7 $ 10 $ 50.000 30.000 40.000 3000 1500 500 What is the fee schedule for these services, assuming that the goal is to cover only variable and direct fixed costs? Basic Exam Total Variable Cost Annual Direct and Overhead TOTAL COSTS Volume Price = Total Costs/Volume $ – $ Advanced Exam – $ Therapy –

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