Introduction to Qualitative Research Approaches Nicola Cook 18.10.2022 Aims of the unit students should be able to Understand Understand the principles of qualitative research and recognise when a qualitative approach has been undertaken by a researcher Identify Identify methodologies associated with qualitative research Understand Understand the principles of research methods adopting a qualitative approach Comment on Comment on the strengths and weaknesses qualitative research Develop Further develop their knowledge of the common terminology used in research – focusing on qualitative research terms What is qualitative research?  Non numerical data  Empirical – originates from observation or experience  Aims to study things in their natural setting – no form of intervention involved  Beneficial in healthcare service improvement  Ranges from simple data collection to complex, deep and meaningful insights Features of qualitative research  It involves naturally occurring data – people in their natural environment  The approach is committed to understanding real world situations as they unfurl from the point of view of the people who live in these worlds – eg people who have experienced it (what is it like to travel in an aeroplane – need to have travelled in an aeroplane)  It is an inductive process – the researcher starts by collecting data and then looking for patterns / drawing theories from it  It is an iterative process – steps can be repeated, usually with improvements. The topic can initially be approached broadly and then refined. It is an adaptive and flexible approach, allowing new elements to be incorporated along the way Aims of the unit students should be able to Understand Understand the principles of qualitative research and recognise when a qualitative approach has been undertaken by a researcher Identify Identify methodologies associated with qualitative research Understand Understand the principles of research methods adopting a qualitative approach Comment on Comment on the strengths and weaknesses qualitative research Develop Further develop their knowledge of the common terminology used in research – focusing on qualitative research terms Data collection methods  Interviews – in-depth / semi-structured / group  Observation – participant / direct / indirect  Documents – reports / letters  Questionnaires / surveys Interviews  In depth, semi-structured, group  Social research data collection method  Used to explore and probe complex issues  Needs some structure  Content needs to be considered closely to ensure logical and useful responses  Weighting towards the interviewee in terms of dialogue  Focus groups are a less structured type of interview – discussing a specific set of topics Observation  Preferred method in case studies or action research  Often used to supplement another method, eg questionnaire  Useful when the phenomenon is unfamiliar eg observing individuals living in a remote and enclosed location  Non verbal behaviour is captured  Participants do not have to do anything, just act as they usually would Documents, reports, letters  Hospital records, photographs, diaries,  requires repeated review, examination, and interpretation of the data in order to gain meaning  Can be used in triangulation with other data collection methods, eg interviews or observations Questionnaires / surveys  Can be easy to administer eg online  Useful for a wider / larger population  Many types of questionnaires – different structure, styles  Open, closed and semi structured questions  Questions need to be considered carefully  Can have reliability and validity issues Activity time ☺ In groups of 2s or 3s consider which data collection method you would use, with reasons, for the following research questions:  ‘Exploring the confidence of third year radiography students on the selection and manipulating of exposure factors in a variety of settings.’  ‘Factors influencing paediatric distress in the x-ray department’  ‘Radiography students’ attitudes and perceptions of the elderly’  ‘Investigating anxiety following an abnormal mammogram’ Data collection methods  Interviews – in-depth / semi-structured / group  Observation – participant / direct / indirect  Documents – reports / letters  Questionnaires / surveys Sampling in qualitative research  Aim is to generate a sample which allows understanding of the topic of interest  Techniques – purposeful / snowballing / convenience  Looking for those who have enough knowledge to answer the question  Snowballing – through a network of people who have that knowledge about what I want  Those readily available  Sample size not fixed – but enough to answer the question, until new themes and categories stop emerging  Depends on time and resources  Until saturation reached Data analysis methods  Intensive in qualitative research compared to quantitative research  Thematic analysis  Content analysis  Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software Activity ☺☺  On a post it note, write down 1 phrase or word to answer the following question What was the best part of your weekend? Aims of the unit students should be able to Understand Understand the principles of qualitative research and recognise when a qualitative approach has been undertaken by a researcher Identify Identify methodologies associated with qualitative research Understand Understand the principles of research methods adopting a qualitative approach Comment on Comment on the strengths and weaknesses qualitative research Develop Further develop their knowledge of the common terminology used in research – focusing on qualitative research terms Qualitative research approaches Phenomenological Ethnographic Grounded theory Historical Case study Action research Phenomenological  This research approach focuses on the lived experiences, beliefs and perceptions of the participants  If I want to learn about what it is like to be a radiographer then I study radiographers, interview them, have focus groups, I see and hear what they do and make an understanding from this  For example, exploring the lived experiences of women undergoing breast biopsy or the lived experiences of family members waiting for a loved one undergoing major surgery  One of the most commonly used methodologies in qualitative research Ethnographic Grounded theory  Research on a group of people and their behaviours and social interactions within their own, native environment  The generation of theory which is ‘grounded’ in data that has been systematically collected and analysed.  Finding out what goes on in social and cultural groups  An example would be investigating student radiographers perception of dose creep – students are already aware of the concept of dose creep – the data is collected based on this assumed knowledge – the theory  Anthropology and sociology based  An example would be observing medical personnel in a busy hospital setting – the medical personnel are the group Historical Case study  Used to describe past events and developments in order to better understand the present and anticipate potential effects on the future  Detailed study of a specific subject in its real world context  An example would be ‘what caused an outbreak of polio in the past that may contribute to the outbreaks of today?’  Detailed and intensive analysis of a specific event  Relies on multiple data sources for evidence  An example would be a refugee group resulting from a political conflict – the group is the case Action research  Action research is widely used in healthcare to investigate professional practice and patients’ experience while simultaneously:  – introducing innovations  – planning, actioning and evaluating new ideas  – seeking to improve patient care  – working collaboratively.  Can be used to address operational problems, eg waiting times in Ultrasound The research question  Succinct and thought provoking  Provides the researcher with explicit aims and targets to work towards  Non-specific questions risk losing focus, confusing readers and have no benefit  Subject / topic – something that the researcher has a background interest in Ethical considerations  Autonomy – anonymity, consent, full disclosure, right to withdraw, confidentiality  Beneficence – ensuring that the results of the study will be used to make improvements / do good / be beneficial  Non-maleficence – not causing physical or mental harm to participants  Justice – fairness and equality to all participants Aims of the unit students should be able to Understand Understand the principles of qualitative research and recognise when a qualitative approach has been undertaken by a researcher Identify Identify methodologies associated with qualitative research Understand Understand the principles of research methods adopting a qualitative approach Comment on Comment on the strengths and weaknesses qualitative research Develop Further develop their knowledge of the common terminology used in research – focusing on qualitative research terms Strengths of qualitative research  Rich data  Seeks to understand rather than explain  Investigates complex issues  Can include unusual details  Generates new ideas for further research Weaknesses of qualitative research  Small sample size (relative)  Time consuming data collection and analysis  Subjective – possible bias  Dependent on researcher skills  Findings cannot be generalised – eg cannot compare radiography study with nursing study How do we determine quality in qualitative research studies?  Dependability – can the findings be replicated  Confirmability – can the researcher demonstrate that the views represent the studied group?  Transferability – can the findings be applied to other settings and groups?  Credibility – is the data true and do they reflect the views of the studied group? Has the data been interpreted correctly?  Authenticity – can readers understand the feelings and emotions of the study participants?  Triangulation as a checking method Aims of the unit students should be able to Understand Understand the principles of qualitative research and recognise when a qualitative approach has been undertaken by a researcher Identify Identify methodologies associated with qualitative research Understand Understand the principles of research methods adopting a qualitative approach Comment on Comment on the strengths and weaknesses qualitative research Develop Further develop their knowledge of the common terminology used in research – focusing on qualitative research terms Qualitative research terminology  See document on Canvas unit WRITING WORKSHOP Olan Lawal & Louise Hadley Session objectives • Develop your understanding of the essay titles • Consider the plan or structure to use for your assignment • Know what to include the in introduction and summary sections • Know where to find relevant articles to support the assignment 2 Assignment titles A. Critically discuss the benefits and limitations of research approaches used in medical imaging. (1500 words) B. Critically discuss the benefits and limitations of the audit approach used in medical imaging. (1000 words) 3 Breaking down the Part A title- the focus of the assignment • Critically discuss the benefits and limitations of research approaches used in medical imaging. • You should cover the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative and qualitative research methods. • The example(s) you include after you have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the methods should be in medical imaging. 4 The critical discussion should include the following • Data collection methods • Methods of analysis • Methods of sampling and recruitment • Consideration of quality, best practice, and ethics How you could present this information in your essay. 5 Structing Part A • Introduction 100 words • Discussion o Methods of sampling and recruitment 400 words ▪ Discuss the benefits and limitations of the quantitative and qualitative methods of sampling. ▪ Include an example of an article in diagnostic radiography that has used a method of sampling you have discussed. o Data collection methods 500 words ▪ Same format as above o Methods of analysis 400 words ▪ Same format as above • Summary 100 words 6 An example text The benefits and limitations of purposive sampling used in the qualitative approach Vs randomised sampling used in the quantitative research approach could be discussed. Ref A conducted a quantitative study on the effectiveness of mild sedation in helping claustrophobic patients complete their magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The authors have randomly allocated participants in the intervention and control groups, thus reducing the risk of selection bias in the study (Ref B). However, the study reported a single-blinding technique was used to assign the participant to the group that received the mild sedation and the group that had the placebo. They could have used a doubleblinding method instead, as there is a tendency that the participants might sense which group they were assigned to from the actions of the researcher (Ref C). Consequently, the participants might start behaving in the way they feel would be appropriate, which might affect the study’s outcome. Studies that use the quantitative approach should endeavour to use a rigorous research process to improve the credibility of their findings. 7 Another example Interviews can be a good way to gain understanding of individual patient experiences (Ref A). As ref B argues, they can capture detail and nuances by recording the experiences in the participants own voice, and allowing clarification of points made, through follow up questions. For example, in the research by X, interviews allowed the researchers to fully appreciate …. . This insight, led the researchers to be able to … It seems unlikely this understanding could have been captured, had a quantitative data collection method been used. However, there are criticisms of interviews ….. (ref C) Whatever your structure – ensure you: • Logically progress the argument • Avoid jumping from one topic to the other • Use sub-headings to guide the reader • Avoid repetition Adapted from Essay Writing: The Basics, University of New South Wales http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/essay3.html Breaking down the Part B title • Critically discuss the benefits and limitations of the audit approach used in medical imaging. • Your discussion should cover the advantages and disadvantages of the audit approach in comparison with the research approach used in medical imaging. • The example(s) you include after you have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the methods should be in medical imaging. 10 Structing writing Part B • Introduction 100 words • Discussion o Methods of sampling and recruitment 300 words ▪ Discuss the benefits and limitations of the sampling method audit approach in comparison with research approach. ▪ Include an example of an article in diagnostic radiography that has used a method of sampling you have discussed. o Data collection methods 300 words o Methods of analysis 200 words • Summary 100 words 11 Introduction section • Defines the main issues- Why is research/audit relevant to diagnostic radiography practice? The professional regulatory body recommendation regarding continuing professional development (CPD). How do radiographers use the knowledge of the benefits and limitations of research/audit to improve practice or patients’ experience? Etc. • State the purpose or aims of the essay concisely • Prepares the reader ☺ • References appropriate and recent literature. Body section • This is where most of the marks will come from • Will need to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to the learning outcomes of the module • It should be structured to aid the flow • Should demonstrate critical thinking • Your essay plan will decide what will be discussed in which order … Summary/conclusion section A good summary: • This should summarise the key information from the body/discussion of the essay. No new information should be introduced in this section, so you do not require citations to support the information. • Pick up on the theme given in the introduction – reflect on this in light of the discussion given in the body section – have you achieved the aim set? • Suggest wider implications if appropriate. Paragraphs – good practice • Aims for 5-8 sentences • Topic sentence (first sentence) sets the scene for the paragraph stating the main idea/ argument of that paragraph. • Within the paragraph o Present your viewpoints and/or statements clearly o Add a definition or explanation of any new terms used in the statements o Then critically analyse the idea giving a short but succinct breakdown of the positives and negatives of that point – this will come from your reading of the topic area. o Then add evidence, i.e. assertions or statistics from literature sources, to justify that idea. o Reference the assertions used according to the HSK referencing guidelines. Paragraphs – good practice cont. • All ideas are internally cohesive but externally different • Paragraphs must be linked like a proverbial thread that is woven from one paragraph to another. This gives your writing cohesion and flow…think of a river. This is what your marker likes to read = good marks! Paragraph structure – consider use of PEEL Point – start with clear topic sentence Evidence– support point with evidence or examples. For example, facts, research findings or paraphrase from credible authority or text book. Explain – show understating by explaining in more detail how and why the evidence supports point. Your explanation should interpret the evidence for the reader. Link- link to initial point – reinforcing it or link to next paragraph – connects the paragraph to the rest of the essay and allows paragraph to feel finished Note: there are other structure aids out there, you may use, but they all need a topic sentence and focus! For example Ref A conducted a quantitative study on the effectiveness of mild sedation in helping claustrophobic patients complete their magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The authors have randomly allocated participants in the intervention and control groups, thus reducing the risk of selection bias in the study (Ref B). However, the study reported a single-blinding technique was used to assign the participant to the group that received the mild sedation and the group that had the placebo. They could have used a double-blinding method instead, as there is a tendency that the participants might sense which group they were assigned to from the actions of the researcher (Ref C). Consequently, the participants might start behaving in the way they feel would be appropriate, which might affect the study’s outcome. Studies that use the quantitative approach should endeavour to use a rigorous research process to improve the reproducibility of their findings. 18 Source of evidence • Books • Methodology-based articles- examples Twycross & Shorten (2014); Raskind et al. (2019) • Diagnostic radiography-based articles for your examples. The three most popular journals in radiography 1. Radiography Journal 2. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Science 3. Journal of Medical Radiation Science • It would be best if you aimed to have 1% of the total word count of your assignment for your number of references. This means that in a 2,500 words essay, you should include about 25 references. 19 Other Information • Be written in an acceptable academic style, which is clear and concise • Use appropriate academic language • Be structured logically • Be word processed and 1.5 line spacing using a standard font size of 11 or 12 and acceptable font (Arial or Calibri). 20 Common Errors to Avoid in your Essay • Avoid long sentences. You should consider breaking it into two sentences if it is over three rows. • Define all abbreviations when they are first used in the assignments. • Avoid using direct quotes – paraphrase information and cite the source. • Ensure you adhere to the School of Health and Social Work Referencing Guidelines. • Use relevant citations to support your arguments and ensure you include all the article cited in your work in the reference list. 21 Common Errors to Avoid in your Essay • Use subheadings to structure the discussion. • Proofread your essay to identify grammatical or spelling errors. • Do not use contractions. Examples- aren’t, can’t, don’t, couldn’t, wasn’t, didn’t, etc. • Check that your discussions/arguments are correct. Do not mistakenly write qualitative when you mean quantitative. • Write in the third person- e.g. he, she, him, her, himself, herself, it, they, them, their, themselves. Do not use first and second-person pronouns. e.g. I, we, us, our, me, my, mine, myself, you, your, yourself. 22 Example of critical writing On canvas – academic skills advice site, there are examples of writing at different levels http://academicskills.health.herts.ac.uk/academic-writingexplained/ Excerpt from level 5 writing http://academicskills.health.herts.ac.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2018/11/Example-of-level-5writing-4.pdf Reference list Raskind, I. G., Shelton, R. C., Comeau, D. L., Cooper, H. L., Griffith, D. M., & Kegler, M. C. (2019). A review of qualitative data analysis practices in health education and health behavior research. Health Education & Behavior, 46(1), 32-39. Twycross, A., & Shorten, A. (2014). Service evaluation, audit and research: what is the difference?. Evidence-based nursing, 17(3), 65-66. 24 Critically Discuss the Benefits and Limitations of Research Approaches Used in Medical Imaging Introduction Research plays a vital role in the advancement of various modalities in medical imaging. It provides evidence useful when changing practice and it is therefore a key aspect of CPD. HCPC has set a standard that dictates that radiographers require to be in constant engagement in evidence-based practice and should be in a position to evaluate research. With this, radiographers can keep up with the advancements that come about in practice, proving that research is vital in ensuring that the best patient care is delivered. The medical field has experienced changes which demand high-quality research. When medics prioritize research in medical imaging, patient care and satisfaction improve, training for healthcare professions is enhanced and the use of radiation improves in terms of quality and safety.

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