PARAGRAPH FROM Annotated Bibliography :

Policy Paper: Annotated Bibliography

1. MIERNICKA, I. (2019). CHAPTER TWENTY DRESS CODE IN A WORKPLACE AS A CHALLENGE FOR LABOUR LAW RELATIONSHIPS IRMINA MIERNICKA.Health at Work, Ageing and Environmental Effects on Future Social Security and Labour Law Systems, 434.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=szWEDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA434&dq=importance+of+dress+code+policy+to+small+companies+and+laws+governing+such+policies+in+the+United+States&ots=bQmfcU8Ey6&sig=YKg7CmjgG_Wc1-43hquAXNaRiEM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

The article examines and analyzes various regulations and legislation governing dress code policies in the United States. For instance, Various legislations governing the conduct of small companies concerning employees dress code are majorly stipulated in the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII). According to federal courts, small companies that intend to enact dress code policies must do so within the accepted general community standards. On the other hand, Miernicka considers the importance of dress codes to small companies and professionals. According to the article, the dress code presents a visual image of an employee, more particularly within the small-sized company where most of the clients get to interact with the company workers directly.

Furthermore, attire can be used to signify an individuals character and professionalism at work. Therefore, putting on a proper dress is vital because no one knows whom they will meet. The image of a staff member towards the clients dictates how people will speak about the company. The articles outline the importance of dress codes and some legislation governing the implementation of dress code policies in the United States.

2. Entsuah, J. R., Abraham, I., & Kyeremeh, D. D. (2018). The Impact of Dress Code on an Organisational Image: A Case Study of Prudential Bank Limited, Takoradi Branch.Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1-11.

https://ift.tt/3DqaoZv

The article evaluates some of the reasons why workers in small companies do not comply with the dressing code policies of their respective companies. The study used a descriptive survey where percentages and frequency were used to visualize the information analyzed. Accordingly, the study establishes the importance of dress codes to small companies. Some of the dress code policys merits include de-escalation of company violence, promoting team spirit, and maintaining a good companys image in society. However, the study also considered why small companies are not willing to put on corporate dress codes and how companies can achieve compliance. According to the study recommendations, the company management should consult together with their staff members to determine the dress style that is most appropriate for their employees. Furthermore, the dress codes policy should be specific and clear to meet the satisfaction of the work. The dress code should also be standardized so that all the employees will be willing to put it on.

3. Premus, R. (1988). U.S. technology policies and their regional effects.Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy,6(4), 441-448. https://ift.tt/30ECbqX

The article examines various changes in the United States technology use policies that respond to the currently increasing economic restructuring within the small companies. According to the article, In the past, most of the technology use policies have been developed by the federal government. However, within the recent past, various states and local governments have begun to initiate critical legislation to govern the technology use within small companies at the grassroots level. The article argues that establishing a binding technology use policy agreement between the company and the staff assists in legitimizing the policy. Additionally, it enables the users to comprehend how serious policy violations are, that failure to comply with the guidelines may lead to severe consequences, including job termination. Finally, even though the article illustrates the current trend of technology use globally, it provides limited information on the importance of technology use to small companies within the United States. The article also omits how small companies can develop appropriate policies to overcome cybersecurity challenges.

4. Gaskin, J. E. (1998). Internet acceptable usage policies.Information Systems Management,15(2), 20-25. https://ift.tt/3DtvhCU

According to Gaskin, technology use policy should outline what the company considers acceptable computer and internet use to protect both the company and workers from ramifications of illegal actions. Furthermore, the article illustrates how technology use policies are drafted, what they should entail, and how they can be effectively implemented. Also, the article discloses a more worrying trend reported in most small companies due to increased cybersecurity and misuse of computer devices by employees. In line with the Identity Theft Resource Center reports, there have been over 600 breaches with over 19 million small company records exposed by June 2020. In a nutshell, the article provides a well-detailed illustration of how technology use policy is beneficial to small companies, more particularly during this error of heightened cybercrime cases. However, effective technology use would be able to address all computer-related issues within the company.

5. Amaral, H. P. (2006). Workplace romance and fraternization policies. https://ift.tt/3DpKzsB

In this article, Amaral examines various common legal and social issues surrounding fraternization policies within small companies and business enterprises within America. According to Amaral, fraternization policies can be an appropriate tool to deal with complicated cases of workplace romance. Moreover, the article also evaluates different measures small companies can consider when finding mechanisms to regulate romantic relations between supervisors and subordinates. Amaral also considers some forms of romance at the wokplace and their legal meanings. For example, according to Amaral, the primary reason for adopting a fraternization policy in small companies is to limit the liability of sexual harassment cases. Usually, there are two forms of harassment: hostile environment and quid pro quo. The quid pro quo is usually where rejection or submission to have sex determines whether one gets employment. At the same time, the hostile environment is where such conduct significantly interferes with the individuals working performance or establishes an offensive and hostile working environment.

6. Loy, P. H., & Stewart, L. P. (1984). The extent and effects of the sexual harassment of working women.Sociological Focus,17(1), 31-43.

https://ift.tt/3wYCJ6D

This paper examines how power is used in most small companies to harass women sexually. According to the paper findings, most sexual harassment cases are executed by superior employees to their subordinate staff members, particularly those within lower ranks like trainees. Moreover, according to the papers finding after conducting a survey, the majority of women that are sexually harassed are non-white women. The article also evaluates various legislation that are guiding fraternization policies in workplaces. According to Loy and Stewarts review of the supreme court verdict, consent cannot be a synonym of welcome. For instance, when a supervisors engagement in a relationship with the subordinate is through both party consents, the question then arises whether the subordinates consent was voluntary or a result of fear of losing the job? A lady may consent to sex; however, she has not welcomed it. However, this paper fails to outline some tangible reasons for adopting fraternization policies to benefit small companies.

7. Fitzgerald, L. F., & Cortina, L. M. (2018). Sexual harassment in work organizations: A view from the 21st century.

https://ift.tt/3oAJ3xq

This article analyses how deeply rooted sexual harassment is within workplaces. According to this paper, sexual harassment is expressed physically and through technological devices like cell phones and the internet. The paper also presents that limiting research and countering measures to sexual harassment at workplaces is regrettable because the vice is extremely rooted even within public places. On the other hand, Fitzgerald and Cortina present a view that even after the supreme court upheld that sexual harassment at places of work is a form of discrimination that is punishable according to Title VII of civil rights, there is still a long way to go to significantly limit cases of sexual harassment, particularly within small companies and businesses. This chapter has also described various forms of sexual challenges women go through at their places of work and how fraternization policies, if properly implemented, could protect women and enhance their productivity.

8. Saravanan, T. (2013). Approaches for an effective attendance management system. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research,2(8), 9-13.

https://ift.tt/3no4tyr

According to Saravanan, small companies management needs to ensure workplace attendance is adhered to by the employees. Subsequently, the article describes the cost of absenteeism as much more prominent than even the direct payment of wages, including the benefits paid. As a result, such companies have to consider the impacts of absenteeism such as diminished morale, lost productivity, opportunity costs, and turnover. Therefore, with proper supervisory efforts at small companies to ensure attendance policies, substantial savings and increased morale and productivity will be realized. Furthermore, the article describes absenteeism as a failure of the employees to show up to work while they are on schedule to be at work. However, according to Saravanan, attendance policies in small companies should also recognize that employees that are out of work due to approved leaves, holidays, or vacations are protected by labor laws and should not be penalized.

9. Olagunju, M., Adeniyi, A. E., & Oladele, T. O. (2018).…The quid pro quo is usually where rejection or submission to have sex determines whether one gets employment. At the same time, a hostile environment is where such conduct significantly interferes with the individuals working performance or establishes an offensive and hostile working environment. Per 20 C.F.R. 1604.11(a)(2) and (3), Title VII encompasses mandatory sexual behavior together with pervasive and severe hostile environments (Loy et al. 1984).

Equally, according to the United States of America Supreme court, while giving a verdict on Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57, 68, 2406 (1986), the court found that even if sex-related conduct is voluntary. The complainant is not forced to participate; such consent was not welcomed, therefore, cannot be used as a defense to the suit under Title VII. Nevertheless, consent cannot be a synonym of welcome. For instance, when a supervisors engagement in a relationship with the subordinate is through both party consents, the question then arises whether the subordinates consent was voluntary or a result of fear of losing the job? A lady may consent to sex; however, she has not welcomed it (Fitzgerald & Cortina 2018).

4. Attendance policies.

The challenge of employee absenteeism is common in most small companies. According to the United States Department of Labour report, an average of two employees within small and developing companies fail to report to work daily. As a result, small companies productivity and morale are adversely affected, leading to higher costs. Some of those small companies can also not quantify the cost of absence from duty as some are considered negligible. Subsequently, such companies fail to track absenteeism strictlyfurthermore, compelling evidence advocates for tracking and quantifying the absenteeism cost within small and developing companies (Olagunju et al., 2018). For instance, both the soft dollar costs like low morale and hard dollar costs like salary opt to be appropriately tabulated and tracked t keep the small companies financially sound. Thus, the need to develop the attendance policy. In many instances, small companies lose an average of $ 123 per employee every year due to absenteeism and low productivity (Saravanan, 2013).

Small companies should adequately design and plan attendance policies to manage and administer absenteeism, including the underlying causes of absenteeism. As a result, there are varying laws that small companies have to consider when developing and implementing attendance policies. For instance, small companies must ensure that varying practices and policies concerning attendance do not contravene the federal fair labor standards act and wage and hour laws that outline overtime and the minimum hourly wage for the workers within small companies. Additionally, small companies should be aware of the paid-sick-leave laws that require the companies to accommodate absenteeism due to sickness. Such circumstances should be precisely stated in the employee attendance policies. Finally, attendance policies should also be guided by the family and medical leave laws. The federal family and medical leave Act permits workers a protected leave of up to 12 weeks to take care of a spouse, parent, or child with a technical health condition (Olagunju et al., 2018).

References

1. Amaral, H. P. (2006). Workplace romance and fraternization policies.

2. Entsuah, J. R., Abraham, I., & Kyeremeh, D. D. (2018). The Impact of Dress Code on an Organisational Image: A Case Study of Prudential Bank Limited, Takoradi Branch.Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1-11.

3. Fitzgerald, L. F., & Cortina, L. M. (2018). Sexual harassment in work organizations: A view from the 21st century.

4. Gaskin, J. E. (1998). Internet acceptable usage policies.Information Systems Management,15(2), 20-25.

5. Loy, P. H., & Stewart, L. P. (1984). The extent and effects of the sexual harassment of working women.Sociological Focus,17(1), 31-43.

6. MIERNICKA, I. (2019). CHAPTER TWENTY DRESS CODE IN A WORKPLACE AS A CHALLENGE FOR LABOUR LAW RELATIONSHIPS IRMINA MIERNICKA.Health at Work, Ageing and Environmental Effects on Future Social Security and Labour Law Systems, 434.

7. Olagunju, M., Adeniyi, A. E., & Oladele, T. O. (2018). Staff attendance monitoring system using fingerprint biometrics.International Journal of Computer Applications,179(21), 8-15.

8. Premus, R. (1988). U.S. technology policies and their regional effects.Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy,6(4), 441-448.

9. Rowden, R. W. (2002). High performance and human resource characteristics of successful small manufacturing and processing companies.Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

10. Saravanan, T. (2013). Approaches for an effective attendance management system. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research,2(8), 9-13.

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