Reply to this postajadhyaksha and Chatterjee (2018) made many excellent points about the different impacts of technology on human work. This has been a growing concern throughout my lifetime. I can remember my grandfather commenting that the new garbage trucks had mechanical claws that could now grab the trash bins and dump them into the truck, eliminating two jobs. The article states numerous examples throughout history where jobs have been eliminated because of technology, but new jobs have risen because of the advancements. It is ironic that with every increase in technology there is a corresponding decrease in leisure time. While we have never had so many machines to do our work, Americans are working more hours each year than ever before. According to OECD statistics, Americans work 435 more hours per year than German workers, 400 more hours than United Kingdom workers, 365 more hours than French workers, and 169 more hours than Japanese workers. The productivity per American worker has increased by 430% since 1950 (Miller, 2022). In one survey, 39% of employed Americans said that technology generally made their work more demanding while only 29% said that it made their work less demanding (Van Kessel, 2020). The United States still does not have a maximum amount of hours allowed to work per week like other countries. With the Great Recession still in recent memory, job security may be a reason why so many Americans feel the need to work so much. They may also feel that their jobs are threatened by cheaper labor markets, such as A.I., and hope to insinuate their abilities to their boss by working extra hard.While A.I. and machines continue to grow rapidly, the threat of being unemployable is largely condensed to the least educated and least intelligent demographics of society. Employment options drop dramatically with lower IQ. People with an IQ of 120 or more have an almost unlimited amount of employment options, whereas there are almost scant options available for those with an IQ below 80 and virtually none for those with an IQ below 70. Gottfredson (2002) estimates that the amount of people in this range is anywhere from 7-10% of the U.S. population. Jobs that are available for this demographic are the most easily automated forms of work, meaning that there will be even fewer jobs available to the less educated and intelligent as technology increases. Elon Musk was quoted as saying that “There is a pretty good chance we end up with a universal basic income, or something like that, due to automation…I am not sure what else one would do” (Clifford, 2016). There are numerous downfalls to universal basic income (UBI) including that it offers the wrong incentives and tends to promote collective poverty, both materially and subjectively (Schneider, 2017). In addition, there are many health benefits to working and subsequently negative health consequences to unemployment. Stauder (2018) found that physical health does not deteriorate before, during, or immediately after the period in which individuals lose their jobs, but that deterioration gains momentum later. Additionally, younger people who experience unemployment gain momentum in their mental health deterioration after the transition. I agree that some jobs will be completely replaced by automation in the future, but overall job availability will increase as we have seen with all technological advancements. The largest problem with automation is that the most vulnerable laborers are those without higher education or intelligence. As the article states, “The displacement of labor as a result of automation is likely to be especially problematic because less than 20% of workers in highly automatable jobs have a Bachelors or advanced degrees” (Rajadhyaksha & Chatterjee, 2018).One of the reasons why I am pursuing a higher degree is because of advancing technology. Years ago I worked for a company whose parent was the largest A.I. corporation in China. My job was to teach English online to Chinese children, which became a multi-billion dollar industry almost overnight with the intense competition in Chinese education and the availability of native speakers to teach children remotely. The parent company invested millions into their new subsidiary, hiring teachers at excellent starting pay with bonuses, incentives, and the promises for growth. The work was fun and extremely rewarding. However, their long-term plan was to use the recorded teaching sessions to further develop their A.I. technology so that machines could teach the children, saving them millions in labor costs and vastly increasing shareholder wealth (Khan, 2019). Knowing the possibility that my job would soon be replaced, I started to look for alternatives. One thing I noticed when looking for a job was the vast differences in employment that require a background in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) versus those that did not. Jobs that required a STEM background typically had better pay, benefits, flexibility, stability, and growth potential. While the article mentioned that about 30% of the finance and insurance jobs can become fully automatable, it also suggests that there is a high potential for deploying workers to alternative functions because of their high levels of education (Rajadhyaksha & Chatterjee, 2018).I’m constantly looking to improve my hiring and retention abilities. Last year I earned a Google Data Analytics Certification in part because of the 380,000 in-demand job openings in data analytics (Google Data Analytics Certificate, n.d.). I plan to continue to work with database sources to improve my marketability. However, I also believe that emotional intelligence is more essential in business and life than cognitive intelligence. Research has shown that emotional intelligence (EI) increases one’s ability to make sound decisions, build and sustain collaborative relationships, deal effectively with stress, and cope to a greater degree with constant change (Why Emotional Intelligence is Important in the Workplace, 2020). EI is something that I think everyone can improve since it is important in both the workplace and in life. It is also a skill set that doesn’t seem to be replaceable by technology.


(USA, AUS, UK & CA PhD. Writers)


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