Malnutrition and Maternal and Child Health PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 1 Protein-Energy Malnutrition Burden of Disease • 2000 – 2002: estimated 852 million people undernourished • 150 million of the 852 million were children under age 5 Management and Control • treatment of helminth infections three times per year has a positive effect on child growth and development PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 2 Micronutrient Deficiencies Burden of Disease • Iron deficiency affects ➢ 50% of pregnancies worldwide ➢ 2% in Egypt ➢ 73% in Wad Medani, Sudan ➢ 48% in Mozambique ➢ 5% in Tehran, Iran ➢ 94% in Coimbatore, India PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 3 Micronutrient Deficiencies Management and Control • Micronutrient Interventions: ➢ Provision of “sprinkles” and fat-based spreads ➢ Supplementation ➢ Dietary diversification PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 4 Malnutrition Contributing factors to micronutrient deficiencies and malnutrition: • Individual factors • Community/Sociocultural factors • Physical environmental factors PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 5 Obesity Burden of Disease • Under nutrition and over nutrition can result from inadequate food supply and other conditions of poverty • Increase in over nutrition occurs at the fastest rate in developed countries and urbanized areas • Obesity has doubled or tripled in the following countries: North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and Japan from 1970s to 1990s PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 6 Obesity Management and Control • Interventions focus on individual behavioral factors such as diet and exercise • Determinants of growing obesity epidemic include an individual’s environment and health behaviors • Psychosocial effects of obesity on children and adolescents • Parent involvement in encouraging good eating habits for children PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 7 Reference Ehiri, J. (2009). Maternal and Child Health – Global Challenges, Programs and Policies. New York: Springer Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0387-89245-0 (e-text). PHC 373: Maternal and Child Health 8
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