Because learning changes everything.® Introduction to Geography Mark Bjelland, David Kaplan, Jon Malinowski, Arthur Getis Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC. Because learning changes everything.® Political Geography Chapter 8 © dbimages/Alamy Stock Photo RF Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC. Overview • National Political Systems. • Cooperation Among States. • Local and Regional Political Organization. © McGraw Hill 3 Political Geography 1 Study of the organization and spatial distribution of political phenomena Landlocked South Sudan Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 4 National Political Systems: Evolution of the Modern State 1 Political organization of space arose independently in many parts of the world. • • • • Chiefdoms Feudal System Empires Territorial States Currently, nearly 200 independent states • Scholars predict that number will continue to rise as small territories achieve independence, large states break up and suppressed peoples claim autonomy. © McGraw Hill 5 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 1 State Definition. • Any of the political units forming a federal government OR. • Independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory (country, nation). Textbook usage. • A state on the international scale is defined as an independent political unit occupying a defined permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs (country). © McGraw Hill 6 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 2 Nation Definition. • Independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory OR. • Community of people with a common culture and territory. Textbook usage. • A group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs. © McGraw Hill 7 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 3 Nation-state • State whose territory coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people, or at least, whose population shares a general sense of cohesion and adherence to a set of common values. • Very few countries can claim to be true nation-states, For Example, Poland and Slovenia. © McGraw Hill 8 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 4 Binational or multinational state • Contains more than one nation, For Example, Switzerland. Part-nation state • Single nation dispersed across and predominant in two or more states, For Example, the Arab nation. Stateless nation • People without a state, For Example, the Kurds, Roma, Basques and Palestinians. © McGraw Hill 9 Types of Relationships Between States and Nations Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 10 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 1 International boundaries • Lines that establish the limit of a state’s jurisdiction and authority. • Serve as powerful reinforcers of cultural variation over the earth’s surface. • Are three dimensional. • Frontier zones. Natural (physical) boundaries • Based on recognizable physiographic features such as mountains, rivers and lakes. • Disadvantages. © McGraw Hill 11 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 2 Artificial (geometric) boundaries Frequently delimited as sections of parallels or meridians. Boundaries classified by settlement Antecedent boundaries. • Established before the area is well populated, Subsequent boundaries. • Established after the area has been settled. © McGraw Hill 12 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 3 Boundaries classified by settlement Types of subsequent boundaries Consequent (ethnographic) boundary. • Drawn to accommodate existing cultural differences. Superimposed boundary. • Ignore existing cultural patterns. Relic boundary Marks a former boundary line. © McGraw Hill 13 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 2 Colonial boundaries Arbitrary administrative divisions. • Not based on meaningful cultural or physical lines. Problems with “nation-building” after independence. © McGraw Hill 14 The Discrepancies Between Ethnic Groups and National Boundaries in Africa from World Regional Geography: A Question of Place by Paul Ward English, with James Andrew Miller Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 15 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 1 Landlocked states Negotiated use of facilities at a foreign port. Negotiated right to travel to that port. Recent decades. • Signed international conventions permitting the free movement of goods across intervening territories without discriminatory taxes, tolls or freight charges. Some landlocked states have narrow corridor of land that reaches either the sea or a navigable river. © McGraw Hill 16 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 1 The physical size, shape, and location of any one state combine to distinguish it from all other states These characteristics affect the power and stability of states. New nations since 1993 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 17 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 2 Waterbodies as boundaries Requires agreement as to where the boundary line should lie. Potential trouble spots. • Watersheds and mountain crestlines do not coincide. • Rivers change course over time. • Use of water resources. © McGraw Hill 18 The Disputed Boundary Between Argentina and Chile in the Southern Andes Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 19 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 5 Resource disputes Neighboring states are likely to covet the resources – whether they be physical or cultural – lying in border areas and to disagree over their use. Potential trouble spots. • Movement of peoples across international border. • Internationally significant resource located on both sides of the border. • Crucial physical or cultural resource on adjacent land in neighboring state. © McGraw Hill 20 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 2 Physical Size • World’s largest country is Russia. • Ministates. • Advantages and disadvantages of large states vs. small states. • Size alone is not critical in determining a country’s stability and strength, but it is a contributing factor. © McGraw Hill 21 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 3 Shape • Can affect well-being of a state by fostering or hindering effective organization. • Most efficient shape, assuming no topographical barriers, would be a circle with the capital located in the center. • Compact. • Prorupt. • Elongated. © McGraw Hill 22 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 4 Shape Fragmented. • Exclave. • Portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country. Perforated. • Enclave. • Territory that is surrounded by, but is not part of, a state. © McGraw Hill 23 Shapes of States Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 24 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 5 Location Absolute location. Relative location. Landlocked states. • Geographic disadvantage. Countries may benefit from location on major trade routes. • Economic advantages. • Diffusion of new ideas and technologies. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 25 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 6 Cores and Capitals Core area • Nucleus and main center of industry, commerce, population, political, and intellectual life. • Capital is usually in the core and frequently the primate city. Unitary states: capital typically associated with core. Federal states: capital may have been newly created. © McGraw Hill 26 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 7 Cores and Capitals (continued) • Regional government/asymmetric federalism: regional capitals. • Forward-thrust capitals: deliberately sited in frontier zone. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 27 National Political Systems: Centripetal Forces: Promoting State Cohesion 1 Nationalism Identification with the state and acceptance of national goals. • Strengthens the political system. • Helps integrate different groups into a unified population. • Symbols (icons) are used to promote nationalism. © McGraw Hill 28 National Political Systems: Centripetal Forces: Promoting State Cohesion 2 Unifying Institutions • Schools, armed forces and sometimes a state church. Organization and administration Transportation and communication Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 29 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 1 Religion • May compete with state for people’s allegiance. • Conflict between majority and minority faiths may destabilize social order. • Opposing sectarian views within a single dominant faith may promote civil conflict. © McGraw Hill 30 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 2 Nationalism Although a powerful centripetal agency, is also potentially a very disruptive centrifugal force. Subnationalism. • Feeling that one owes primary allegiance to a traditional group or nation rather than to the state. Right to self-determination © McGraw Hill 31 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 3 Nationalism (continued) Regionalism. • Minority group identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole. • May be expressed as a desire for self-government or even separation from the rest of the country. Separatist movements may seek. • Regional autonomy or. • Complete independence. © McGraw Hill 32 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 4 Nationalism (continued) Devolution. • Decentralization of political control. Ethnic cleansing. • Tactic used to transform a multinational area into one containing only one nation. • Killing or forcible relocation of one traditional or ethnic group by a more powerful one. © McGraw Hill 33 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 5 Nationalism (continued) Preconditions common to all separatist movements. • Territory. • Nationality. Other common characteristics of separatist movements. • Peripheral location. • Social and economic inequality. © McGraw Hill 34 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State State-centric view of the world is increasingly under assault from multiple new agents of economic and social power: • Globalization of economies and emergence of transnational corporations. • Proliferation of international and supranational institutions • Emergence and multiplication of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). • Massive international migration flows. • Increase in nationalist and separatist movements. © McGraw Hill 35 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State 3 Minority group identification • Conflicts can arise if the people of one state claim and seek to acquire a territory whose population is historically or ethnically related to that of the state but is now subject to a foreign government. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 36 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State 4 Minority group identification (continued) Potential trouble spots. • Irredentism. • Desire of a state to gain or regain territory inhabited by people who have historic or cultural links to the country. • Location of ethnic homeland spans border. • Internal separatist movement. © McGraw Hill 37 Cooperation Among States 1 Supranationalism • Associations of three or more states created for mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives. • Nearly all countries are members of at least one – most are members of many – supranational groupings. United Nations (UN) • 193 members in 2021. • Provides a forum where countries can discuss international problems and regional concerns and a mechanism for forestalling disputes or ending wars. • Sponsors 40 programs and agencies. © McGraw Hill 38 Cooperation Among States 2 United Nations (UN) Recent changes: • “Interventionism”. • “International jurisdiction over inalienable human rights”. United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies Maritime boundaries. • Oceans remained outside individual national control or international jurisdiction until recent history. © McGraw Hill 39 Cooperation Among States 3 United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies (continued) International Law of the Sea – four zones of diminishing control: • Territorial sea of up to 12 nm. • Contiguous zone of up to 24 nm. • Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of up to 200 nm with exclusive rights to resources lying within the continental shelf when it extends farther, up to 350 nm. • High seas beyond the EEZ – open to all states. © McGraw Hill 40 Cooperation Among States 4 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 41 Cooperation Among States 5 United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies (continued) UN affiliates. • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). • World Bank. • International Labor Organization (ILO). • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). • World Health Organization (WHO). • World Trade Organization (WTO). © McGraw Hill 42 Cooperation Among States 6 Regional Alliances Economic Alliances, some address social, political and cultural interests as well. • European Union (EU). • Western Hemisphere economic unions: NAFTA, CAFTA, CARICOM, MERCOSUR. • Asian and Pacific economic unions: ASEAN, APEC. • African economic union: ECOWAS. • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). • Hundreds of other bilateral and regional trade agreements. © McGraw Hill 43 The Members of the European Union (EU) as of July 2021 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 44 Cooperation Among States 7 Regional Alliances Economic Alliances. • Formation of a coalition in one geographic area stimulates the creation of another alliance by countries left out of the first alliance. • New unions tend to be composed of contiguous states. • Does not matter whether countries have similar or distinctly different economies. © McGraw Hill 45 Cooperation Among States 8 Regional Alliances Military alliances. • Based on principle that unity brings strength. • Pacts usually provide for mutual assistance in case of aggression. • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Political alliances. • More generalized mutual concerns or appeals to historic interest. • Commonwealth of Nations. • Organization of American States (OAS). © McGraw Hill 46 The NATO Military Alliance as of 2020 had 28 members Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 47 Local and Regional Political Organization 1 The Geography of Representation in the U.S. and Canada: The Districting Problem Redistricting/reapportionment. • To reflect population changes. Electoral geography. • Study of the delineation of voting districts and the spatial patterns of election results. © McGraw Hill 48 Geographic Shifts in Congressional Apportionment Between 1930 and 2010 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 49 Local and Regional Political Organization 2 The Geography of Representation in the U.S. and Canada: The Districting Problem (continued) Gerrymandering. • Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so as to unfairly favor one political party over another, fragment voting blocs, or achieve other nondemocratic objectives. • Stacked gerrymandering. • Excess vote technique. • Wasted vote strategy. © McGraw Hill 50 Alternative Districting Strategies Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 51 Local and Regional Political Organization 3 The Fragmentation of Political Power The U.S. is subdivided into great numbers of political administrative units. • > 3000 counties (parishes in LA). • Further subdivided into townships and special-purpose districts. • Cities. • Further subdivided into wards or precincts and special purpose districts: sewage, police, school. © McGraw Hill 52 Local and Regional Political Organization 4 The Fragmentation of Political Power (continued) The U.S. is subdivided into great numbers of political administrative units. Problems of inefficiency & duplication of effort. • Zoning ordinances. Challenge: Too much governmental fragmentation versus too little local control. Environmental Justice Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 53

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Because learning changes everything.® Introduction to Geography Mark Bjelland, David Kaplan, Jon Malinowski, Arthur Getis Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC. Because learning changes everything.® Political Geography Chapter 8 © dbimages/Alamy Stock Photo RF Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC. Overview • National Political Systems. • Cooperation Among States. • Local and Regional Political Organization. © McGraw Hill 3 Political Geography 1 Study of the organization and spatial distribution of political phenomena Landlocked South Sudan Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 4 National Political Systems: Evolution of the Modern State 1 Political organization of space arose independently in many parts of the world. • • • • Chiefdoms Feudal System Empires Territorial States Currently, nearly 200 independent states • Scholars predict that number will continue to rise as small territories achieve independence, large states break up and suppressed peoples claim autonomy. © McGraw Hill 5 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 1 State Definition. • Any of the political units forming a federal government OR. • Independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory (country, nation). Textbook usage. • A state on the international scale is defined as an independent political unit occupying a defined permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs (country). © McGraw Hill 6 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 2 Nation Definition. • Independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory OR. • Community of people with a common culture and territory. Textbook usage. • A group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs. © McGraw Hill 7 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 3 Nation-state • State whose territory coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people, or at least, whose population shares a general sense of cohesion and adherence to a set of common values. • Very few countries can claim to be true nation-states, For Example, Poland and Slovenia. © McGraw Hill 8 National Political Systems: States, Nations, and Nation-States 4 Binational or multinational state • Contains more than one nation, For Example, Switzerland. Part-nation state • Single nation dispersed across and predominant in two or more states, For Example, the Arab nation. Stateless nation • People without a state, For Example, the Kurds, Roma, Basques and Palestinians. © McGraw Hill 9 Types of Relationships Between States and Nations Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 10 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 1 International boundaries • Lines that establish the limit of a state’s jurisdiction and authority. • Serve as powerful reinforcers of cultural variation over the earth’s surface. • Are three dimensional. • Frontier zones. Natural (physical) boundaries • Based on recognizable physiographic features such as mountains, rivers and lakes. • Disadvantages. © McGraw Hill 11 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 2 Artificial (geometric) boundaries Frequently delimited as sections of parallels or meridians. Boundaries classified by settlement Antecedent boundaries. • Established before the area is well populated, Subsequent boundaries. • Established after the area has been settled. © McGraw Hill 12 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 3 Boundaries classified by settlement Types of subsequent boundaries Consequent (ethnographic) boundary. • Drawn to accommodate existing cultural differences. Superimposed boundary. • Ignore existing cultural patterns. Relic boundary Marks a former boundary line. © McGraw Hill 13 National Political Systems: Boundaries: The Limits of the State 2 Colonial boundaries Arbitrary administrative divisions. • Not based on meaningful cultural or physical lines. Problems with “nation-building” after independence. © McGraw Hill 14 The Discrepancies Between Ethnic Groups and National Boundaries in Africa from World Regional Geography: A Question of Place by Paul Ward English, with James Andrew Miller Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 15 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 1 Landlocked states Negotiated use of facilities at a foreign port. Negotiated right to travel to that port. Recent decades. • Signed international conventions permitting the free movement of goods across intervening territories without discriminatory taxes, tolls or freight charges. Some landlocked states have narrow corridor of land that reaches either the sea or a navigable river. © McGraw Hill 16 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 1 The physical size, shape, and location of any one state combine to distinguish it from all other states These characteristics affect the power and stability of states. New nations since 1993 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 17 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 2 Waterbodies as boundaries Requires agreement as to where the boundary line should lie. Potential trouble spots. • Watersheds and mountain crestlines do not coincide. • Rivers change course over time. • Use of water resources. © McGraw Hill 18 The Disputed Boundary Between Argentina and Chile in the Southern Andes Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 19 National Political Systems: Boundaries as Sources of Conflict 5 Resource disputes Neighboring states are likely to covet the resources – whether they be physical or cultural – lying in border areas and to disagree over their use. Potential trouble spots. • Movement of peoples across international border. • Internationally significant resource located on both sides of the border. • Crucial physical or cultural resource on adjacent land in neighboring state. © McGraw Hill 20 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 2 Physical Size • World’s largest country is Russia. • Ministates. • Advantages and disadvantages of large states vs. small states. • Size alone is not critical in determining a country’s stability and strength, but it is a contributing factor. © McGraw Hill 21 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 3 Shape • Can affect well-being of a state by fostering or hindering effective organization. • Most efficient shape, assuming no topographical barriers, would be a circle with the capital located in the center. • Compact. • Prorupt. • Elongated. © McGraw Hill 22 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 4 Shape Fragmented. • Exclave. • Portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country. Perforated. • Enclave. • Territory that is surrounded by, but is not part of, a state. © McGraw Hill 23 Shapes of States Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 24 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 5 Location Absolute location. Relative location. Landlocked states. • Geographic disadvantage. Countries may benefit from location on major trade routes. • Economic advantages. • Diffusion of new ideas and technologies. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 25 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 6 Cores and Capitals Core area • Nucleus and main center of industry, commerce, population, political, and intellectual life. • Capital is usually in the core and frequently the primate city. Unitary states: capital typically associated with core. Federal states: capital may have been newly created. © McGraw Hill 26 National Political Systems: Geographic Characteristics of States 7 Cores and Capitals (continued) • Regional government/asymmetric federalism: regional capitals. • Forward-thrust capitals: deliberately sited in frontier zone. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 27 National Political Systems: Centripetal Forces: Promoting State Cohesion 1 Nationalism Identification with the state and acceptance of national goals. • Strengthens the political system. • Helps integrate different groups into a unified population. • Symbols (icons) are used to promote nationalism. © McGraw Hill 28 National Political Systems: Centripetal Forces: Promoting State Cohesion 2 Unifying Institutions • Schools, armed forces and sometimes a state church. Organization and administration Transportation and communication Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 29 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 1 Religion • May compete with state for people’s allegiance. • Conflict between majority and minority faiths may destabilize social order. • Opposing sectarian views within a single dominant faith may promote civil conflict. © McGraw Hill 30 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 2 Nationalism Although a powerful centripetal agency, is also potentially a very disruptive centrifugal force. Subnationalism. • Feeling that one owes primary allegiance to a traditional group or nation rather than to the state. Right to self-determination © McGraw Hill 31 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 3 Nationalism (continued) Regionalism. • Minority group identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole. • May be expressed as a desire for self-government or even separation from the rest of the country. Separatist movements may seek. • Regional autonomy or. • Complete independence. © McGraw Hill 32 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 4 Nationalism (continued) Devolution. • Decentralization of political control. Ethnic cleansing. • Tactic used to transform a multinational area into one containing only one nation. • Killing or forcible relocation of one traditional or ethnic group by a more powerful one. © McGraw Hill 33 National Political Systems: Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority 5 Nationalism (continued) Preconditions common to all separatist movements. • Territory. • Nationality. Other common characteristics of separatist movements. • Peripheral location. • Social and economic inequality. © McGraw Hill 34 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State State-centric view of the world is increasingly under assault from multiple new agents of economic and social power: • Globalization of economies and emergence of transnational corporations. • Proliferation of international and supranational institutions • Emergence and multiplication of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). • Massive international migration flows. • Increase in nationalist and separatist movements. © McGraw Hill 35 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State 3 Minority group identification • Conflicts can arise if the people of one state claim and seek to acquire a territory whose population is historically or ethnically related to that of the state but is now subject to a foreign government. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 36 National Political Systems: Challenges to the State 4 Minority group identification (continued) Potential trouble spots. • Irredentism. • Desire of a state to gain or regain territory inhabited by people who have historic or cultural links to the country. • Location of ethnic homeland spans border. • Internal separatist movement. © McGraw Hill 37 Cooperation Among States 1 Supranationalism • Associations of three or more states created for mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives. • Nearly all countries are members of at least one – most are members of many – supranational groupings. United Nations (UN) • 193 members in 2021. • Provides a forum where countries can discuss international problems and regional concerns and a mechanism for forestalling disputes or ending wars. • Sponsors 40 programs and agencies. © McGraw Hill 38 Cooperation Among States 2 United Nations (UN) Recent changes: • “Interventionism”. • “International jurisdiction over inalienable human rights”. United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies Maritime boundaries. • Oceans remained outside individual national control or international jurisdiction until recent history. © McGraw Hill 39 Cooperation Among States 3 United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies (continued) International Law of the Sea – four zones of diminishing control: • Territorial sea of up to 12 nm. • Contiguous zone of up to 24 nm. • Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of up to 200 nm with exclusive rights to resources lying within the continental shelf when it extends farther, up to 350 nm. • High seas beyond the EEZ – open to all states. © McGraw Hill 40 Cooperation Among States 4 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 41 Cooperation Among States 5 United Nations (UN) and Its Agencies (continued) UN affiliates. • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). • World Bank. • International Labor Organization (ILO). • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). • World Health Organization (WHO). • World Trade Organization (WTO). © McGraw Hill 42 Cooperation Among States 6 Regional Alliances Economic Alliances, some address social, political and cultural interests as well. • European Union (EU). • Western Hemisphere economic unions: NAFTA, CAFTA, CARICOM, MERCOSUR. • Asian and Pacific economic unions: ASEAN, APEC. • African economic union: ECOWAS. • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). • Hundreds of other bilateral and regional trade agreements. © McGraw Hill 43 The Members of the European Union (EU) as of July 2021 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 44 Cooperation Among States 7 Regional Alliances Economic Alliances. • Formation of a coalition in one geographic area stimulates the creation of another alliance by countries left out of the first alliance. • New unions tend to be composed of contiguous states. • Does not matter whether countries have similar or distinctly different economies. © McGraw Hill 45 Cooperation Among States 8 Regional Alliances Military alliances. • Based on principle that unity brings strength. • Pacts usually provide for mutual assistance in case of aggression. • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Political alliances. • More generalized mutual concerns or appeals to historic interest. • Commonwealth of Nations. • Organization of American States (OAS). © McGraw Hill 46 The NATO Military Alliance as of 2020 had 28 members Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 47 Local and Regional Political Organization 1 The Geography of Representation in the U.S. and Canada: The Districting Problem Redistricting/reapportionment. • To reflect population changes. Electoral geography. • Study of the delineation of voting districts and the spatial patterns of election results. © McGraw Hill 48 Geographic Shifts in Congressional Apportionment Between 1930 and 2010 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 49 Local and Regional Political Organization 2 The Geography of Representation in the U.S. and Canada: The Districting Problem (continued) Gerrymandering. • Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so as to unfairly favor one political party over another, fragment voting blocs, or achieve other nondemocratic objectives. • Stacked gerrymandering. • Excess vote technique. • Wasted vote strategy. © McGraw Hill 50 Alternative Districting Strategies Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 51 Local and Regional Political Organization 3 The Fragmentation of Political Power The U.S. is subdivided into great numbers of political administrative units. • > 3000 counties (parishes in LA). • Further subdivided into townships and special-purpose districts. • Cities. • Further subdivided into wards or precincts and special purpose districts: sewage, police, school. © McGraw Hill 52 Local and Regional Political Organization 4 The Fragmentation of Political Power (continued) The U.S. is subdivided into great numbers of political administrative units. Problems of inefficiency & duplication of effort. • Zoning ordinances. Challenge: Too much governmental fragmentation versus too little local control. Environmental Justice Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 53

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