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 the methods used, the results obtained, and a brief personal reflection of what you enjoyed and learned about doing this lab 1) What was the purpose of this lab? What did you actually discover and learn during this lab? 2) What did you enjoy most about this lab? Also, what was challenging or thought-provoking? 8 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х f → C Agcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read Announcements Syllabus 12.3 Crustal Deformation Information (READ) Modules Stress and Strain Effects on Rocks Grades CN) People CONFINING PRESSURE stress is equal n all directions) DIRECTED PRESSURE (stress is not equal in all directions) P Discussions 28 STRESS Tutoring TENSION SHEAR Student Support Hub BRITTLE ROCKS Rocks under low confining pressure will break when they yield to contining and directed pressure D. © Fracture Cons) Powerful Normas DUCTILE ROCKS As rocks experience higher confining pressure they lose their brittle nature and bend or flow when they yield to confining and Folding Stretching and thing Dlation volume del directed pressure Bending along internal surface of the Block Diagram A 3D oblique sketch of a block (outlined in red) with a geologic map on top and geologic cross-section (vertical) on its two visible sides. Formation contacts GEOLOGIC MAP a 2-dimensional mode of formations colors and formation contacts Subparel Vertical fractures in Blue Fm Red Fm Yellow Fm Bedding Plane contact FORMATION CONTACT Bedding Plane contacts SOUTH CROSS SECTION BLOCK DIAGRAM a 3 dimernali osatch of a blocked in on and logic cross Sections tvertical) on its visible sides OUTCROP wound. There are a place where bedrock crops out is out of the made when people cut through bedrock to make room for a Highway RULES OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE 1. Layers, strike and dip: • Numbers indicate the order of deposition. Lower numbers are older. Higher numbers are younger. • Younger layers must be above older layers. • On level ground, strike symbols are always parallel to the outcrop pattern. • Dip direction is always toward the younger layers (higher numbers). True thickness is constant for an individual layer. • Apparent thickness in outcrop varies with dip amount. The outcrop pattern of a layer with a 90° dip shows true thickness. As the dip amount decreases (flattens), the apparent thickness increases. Horizontal beds have infinite apparent thickness in outcrop. 2. Anticlines: • Dip directions are away from the axial plane. • Older layers are in core. 3. Synclines: • Dip directions are towards the axial plane. • Younger layers are in core. 4. Non-plunging folds: • Axis is horizontal. • Outcrop patterns parallel the fold axis. • A cross section that is parallel to the axis shows a series of horizontal layers. → 1 Type here to search O o ! ? 2) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х – > с Agcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read 5. Plunging folds: • Axis is not horizontal. . Outcrop patterns form a U-shape. • The plunge direction of an anticline is towards the closed end of the U. • The plunge direction of an syncline is towards the open end of the U. • Adjacent synclines and anticlines plunge in the same direction. • A cross section that is parallel to the axis shows a series of layers that dip in the plunge direction. Screenshot has been saved to Gallery 6. Symmetrical folds: • Axial plane is vertical. • Dip direction changes on either side of the fold axis, but dip amount does not. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop does not vary on either side of the fold axis. 7. Asymmetrical folds: O © • Axial plane is not vertical. • Both the dip direction and dip amount change on either side of the fold axis. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop varies on either side of the fold axis. 8. Normal fault: • Indicates extension. • The hanging wall moves down – sliding younger layers down and over older layers. • Surface erosion exposes younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped hanging wall and older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the younger layers. . Will not offset vertical planes. 9. Reverse fault: • Indicates compression. • The hanging wall moves up, thrusting older layers up and over younger layers. • Surface erosion exposes older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted hanging wall and younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the older layers. • Will not offset vertical planes. 10. Right lateral fault: • The other block moves to your right. . Will not offset horizontal planes. 11. Left lateral fault: • The other block moves to your left. • Will not offset horizontal planes. Geologic Symbols Structural geology symbols and abbreviations used on geologic maps Strike and dip of strata Strike and dip of a normal fault High angle fault: U for up and D D for down to indicate relative movement Vertical strata Axis of an anticline Reverse fault teeth are in the side of the hanging wall (upper block): number indicates dip of the fault plane Axis of an overturned anticline Axis of a syncline Axis of an overturned syncline Contact or other line solid where known, dashed where approximated, and dotted where concealed Axis of a plunging anticline Strike and dip of overturned strata A + & Axis of plunging syncline Synclinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds Horizontal strata Trend and plunge of a line 속 Anticlinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Strike and dip of foliation Lateral, or strike-slip fault; half arrows indicate relative movement w Unconformity → Devenian NARA Type here to search O o ! ? 2)) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х – > с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop does not vary on either side of the fold axis. 7. Asymmetrical folds: • Axial plane is not vertical. . Both the dip direction and dip amount change on either side of the fold axis. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop varies on either side of the fold axis. 8. Normal fault: • Indicates extension. The hanging wall moves down – sliding younger layers down and over older layers. • Surface erosion exposes younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped hanging wall and older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the younger layers. • Will not offset vertical planes. O © 9. Reverse fault: • Indicates compression. • The hanging wall moves up, thrusting older layers up and over younger layers. • Surface erosion exposes older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted hanging wall and younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the older layers. . Will not offset vertical planes. 10. Right lateral fault: • The other block moves to your right. • Will not offset horizontal planes. 11. Left lateral fault: • The other block moves to your left. . Will not offset horizontal planes. Geologic Symbols Structural geology symbols and abbreviations used on geologic maps Strike and dip of strata Strike and dip of a normal fault High angle fault; U for up and D for down to indicate relative movement Vertical strata Axis of an anticline y MAA Reverse fault teeth are in the side of the hanging wall (upper block): number indicates dip of the fault plane Axis of an overturned anticline Axis of a syncline > Axis of an overturned syncline Contact or other line solid where known, dashed where approximated, and dotted where concealed Axis of a plunging antiline Strike and dip of overturned strata Axis of a plunging syncline Synclinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Horizontal strata +20 Trend and plunge of a line Anticlinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Strike and dip of foliation Lateral, or strike-slip fault: half arrows indicate relative movement w Unconformity D Devonian Jurassic N Neogene S Silurian Triassic P Paleogene Ordovician Permian Quaternary e Cambrian Pennsylvanian T Tertiary pc Precambrian M Mississippian K Cretaceous Previous Next → 1 Type here to search O i o ! ? 2) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ): 2021 X + o х с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-4-strike-and-dip-read 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ) Syllabus Modules STRIKE AND DIP Grades People Objectives Discussions 1. to measure the attitude (orientation) of a planar surface 2. to identify and measure geologic structures 3. to read and interpret geologic maps Tutoring Student Support Hub Introduction D. © One of the major goals of geology is to interpret the arrangement of rock units in three dimensions – to see below the surface. For most bodies of plutonic igneous rock, this can only be done in a general way, for such objects have irregular, unpredictable shapes. However, for many other geological features (dikes, sills, lava flows, sedimentary layers, faults, joints etc.) the shape of the unit is essentially tabular, where the thickness is small compared to the length and width, or planar, where the thickness is essentially zero. The orientation or attitude of any tabular or planar feature can be uniquely described by combining two parameters – strike and dip. Strike Strike is the compass direction (bearing) of a level line in a plane measured as the acute angle from north. HOW TO VISUALIZE STRIKE AND DIP 1. Strike of an inclined (tilted) surface is a line formed where the surface intersects a horizontal plane, like the surface of the water puddle in this illustration. This strike would be recorded as N 65°E (north 65-degrees east) or an azimuth direction of 65º. 2. Dip is the angle and direction that water flows (or a ball rolls) down an inclined (tilted) surface. In this example, the dip is 30° southeast. Dip direction Vertical plane Line of strike Water line 3. Symbols are used to represent strike and dip. The “T” symbol below is used to represent strike and dip of an inclined surface, as in this illustration. Inclined surface 30° Horizontal plane Dip angle 30° Line of strike Water puddle The long line represents the line of strike. This short line points in the direction of dip, like the short hand of a clock. 30 The number is the degrees dip. + or These symbols indicate that the surface is horizontal. This symbol indicates that dip is 90° (vertical). Water puddle 4. This is how strike and dip would be represented on a porch chair. The seat is horizontal but the back is steeply inclined. Note that this is an oblique view like the illustration above and the block diagram in Figure 10.2. 5. This is the same porch chair viewed from directly above; same as a geologic map. Based on the north arrow, the strike is N 30° W or an azimuth direction of 330° 6. This inclined rock surface is partly under a water puddle. Strike of the inclined rock surface is the line formed where it intersects the horizontal water surface (shoreline). Dip points down towards the water, perpendicular strike. 7. Water flows downhill in the direction of dip. Strike is always perpendicuar to dip, so the strike line can be drawn relative to the water line. → Figure 1 Type here to search O o ! ? 2)) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ): 2021 X + o х – → с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-4-strike-and-dip-read Like all lines, the strike will have two ends and therefore two different compass directions. Yet only one of those is necessary to uniquely describe the orientation of the line because the other is always in the exact opposite direction (1809). By convention, geologists always measure strike as the acute (

The Load of A River Stream Particles Creative Writing Paper - EssayLoop.

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 the methods used, the results obtained, and a brief personal reflection of what you enjoyed and learned about doing this lab 1) What was the purpose of this lab? What did you actually discover and learn during this lab? 2) What did you enjoy most about this lab? Also, what was challenging or thought-provoking? 8 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х f → C Agcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read Announcements Syllabus 12.3 Crustal Deformation Information (READ) Modules Stress and Strain Effects on Rocks Grades CN) People CONFINING PRESSURE stress is equal n all directions) DIRECTED PRESSURE (stress is not equal in all directions) P Discussions 28 STRESS Tutoring TENSION SHEAR Student Support Hub BRITTLE ROCKS Rocks under low confining pressure will break when they yield to contining and directed pressure D. © Fracture Cons) Powerful Normas DUCTILE ROCKS As rocks experience higher confining pressure they lose their brittle nature and bend or flow when they yield to confining and Folding Stretching and thing Dlation volume del directed pressure Bending along internal surface of the Block Diagram A 3D oblique sketch of a block (outlined in red) with a geologic map on top and geologic cross-section (vertical) on its two visible sides. Formation contacts GEOLOGIC MAP a 2-dimensional mode of formations colors and formation contacts Subparel Vertical fractures in Blue Fm Red Fm Yellow Fm Bedding Plane contact FORMATION CONTACT Bedding Plane contacts SOUTH CROSS SECTION BLOCK DIAGRAM a 3 dimernali osatch of a blocked in on and logic cross Sections tvertical) on its visible sides OUTCROP wound. There are a place where bedrock crops out is out of the made when people cut through bedrock to make room for a Highway RULES OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE 1. Layers, strike and dip: • Numbers indicate the order of deposition. Lower numbers are older. Higher numbers are younger. • Younger layers must be above older layers. • On level ground, strike symbols are always parallel to the outcrop pattern. • Dip direction is always toward the younger layers (higher numbers). True thickness is constant for an individual layer. • Apparent thickness in outcrop varies with dip amount. The outcrop pattern of a layer with a 90° dip shows true thickness. As the dip amount decreases (flattens), the apparent thickness increases. Horizontal beds have infinite apparent thickness in outcrop. 2. Anticlines: • Dip directions are away from the axial plane. • Older layers are in core. 3. Synclines: • Dip directions are towards the axial plane. • Younger layers are in core. 4. Non-plunging folds: • Axis is horizontal. • Outcrop patterns parallel the fold axis. • A cross section that is parallel to the axis shows a series of horizontal layers. → 1 Type here to search O o ! ? 2) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х – > с Agcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read 5. Plunging folds: • Axis is not horizontal. . Outcrop patterns form a U-shape. • The plunge direction of an anticline is towards the closed end of the U. • The plunge direction of an syncline is towards the open end of the U. • Adjacent synclines and anticlines plunge in the same direction. • A cross section that is parallel to the axis shows a series of layers that dip in the plunge direction. Screenshot has been saved to Gallery 6. Symmetrical folds: • Axial plane is vertical. • Dip direction changes on either side of the fold axis, but dip amount does not. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop does not vary on either side of the fold axis. 7. Asymmetrical folds: O © • Axial plane is not vertical. • Both the dip direction and dip amount change on either side of the fold axis. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop varies on either side of the fold axis. 8. Normal fault: • Indicates extension. • The hanging wall moves down – sliding younger layers down and over older layers. • Surface erosion exposes younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped hanging wall and older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the younger layers. . Will not offset vertical planes. 9. Reverse fault: • Indicates compression. • The hanging wall moves up, thrusting older layers up and over younger layers. • Surface erosion exposes older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted hanging wall and younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the older layers. • Will not offset vertical planes. 10. Right lateral fault: • The other block moves to your right. . Will not offset horizontal planes. 11. Left lateral fault: • The other block moves to your left. • Will not offset horizontal planes. Geologic Symbols Structural geology symbols and abbreviations used on geologic maps Strike and dip of strata Strike and dip of a normal fault High angle fault: U for up and D D for down to indicate relative movement Vertical strata Axis of an anticline Reverse fault teeth are in the side of the hanging wall (upper block): number indicates dip of the fault plane Axis of an overturned anticline Axis of a syncline Axis of an overturned syncline Contact or other line solid where known, dashed where approximated, and dotted where concealed Axis of a plunging anticline Strike and dip of overturned strata A + & Axis of plunging syncline Synclinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds Horizontal strata Trend and plunge of a line 속 Anticlinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Strike and dip of foliation Lateral, or strike-slip fault; half arrows indicate relative movement w Unconformity → Devenian NARA Type here to search O o ! ? 2)) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.3 Crustal Deformation Informa X + o х – > с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-3-crustal-deformation-information-read • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop does not vary on either side of the fold axis. 7. Asymmetrical folds: • Axial plane is not vertical. . Both the dip direction and dip amount change on either side of the fold axis. • The apparent thickness of a layer’s outcrop varies on either side of the fold axis. 8. Normal fault: • Indicates extension. The hanging wall moves down – sliding younger layers down and over older layers. • Surface erosion exposes younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped hanging wall and older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the younger layers. • Will not offset vertical planes. O © 9. Reverse fault: • Indicates compression. • The hanging wall moves up, thrusting older layers up and over younger layers. • Surface erosion exposes older layers (lower numbers) on the uplifted hanging wall and younger layers (higher numbers) on the down-dropped footwall. • The fault plane dips toward the older layers. . Will not offset vertical planes. 10. Right lateral fault: • The other block moves to your right. • Will not offset horizontal planes. 11. Left lateral fault: • The other block moves to your left. . Will not offset horizontal planes. Geologic Symbols Structural geology symbols and abbreviations used on geologic maps Strike and dip of strata Strike and dip of a normal fault High angle fault; U for up and D for down to indicate relative movement Vertical strata Axis of an anticline y MAA Reverse fault teeth are in the side of the hanging wall (upper block): number indicates dip of the fault plane Axis of an overturned anticline Axis of a syncline > Axis of an overturned syncline Contact or other line solid where known, dashed where approximated, and dotted where concealed Axis of a plunging antiline Strike and dip of overturned strata Axis of a plunging syncline Synclinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Horizontal strata +20 Trend and plunge of a line Anticlinal bend of a monocline: short arrow is on steeper beds, long arrow is on more nearly horizontal beds. Strike and dip of foliation Lateral, or strike-slip fault: half arrows indicate relative movement w Unconformity D Devonian Jurassic N Neogene S Silurian Triassic P Paleogene Ordovician Permian Quaternary e Cambrian Pennsylvanian T Tertiary pc Precambrian M Mississippian K Cretaceous Previous Next → 1 Type here to search O i o ! ? 2) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ): 2021 X + o х с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-4-strike-and-dip-read 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ) Syllabus Modules STRIKE AND DIP Grades People Objectives Discussions 1. to measure the attitude (orientation) of a planar surface 2. to identify and measure geologic structures 3. to read and interpret geologic maps Tutoring Student Support Hub Introduction D. © One of the major goals of geology is to interpret the arrangement of rock units in three dimensions – to see below the surface. For most bodies of plutonic igneous rock, this can only be done in a general way, for such objects have irregular, unpredictable shapes. However, for many other geological features (dikes, sills, lava flows, sedimentary layers, faults, joints etc.) the shape of the unit is essentially tabular, where the thickness is small compared to the length and width, or planar, where the thickness is essentially zero. The orientation or attitude of any tabular or planar feature can be uniquely described by combining two parameters – strike and dip. Strike Strike is the compass direction (bearing) of a level line in a plane measured as the acute angle from north. HOW TO VISUALIZE STRIKE AND DIP 1. Strike of an inclined (tilted) surface is a line formed where the surface intersects a horizontal plane, like the surface of the water puddle in this illustration. This strike would be recorded as N 65°E (north 65-degrees east) or an azimuth direction of 65º. 2. Dip is the angle and direction that water flows (or a ball rolls) down an inclined (tilted) surface. In this example, the dip is 30° southeast. Dip direction Vertical plane Line of strike Water line 3. Symbols are used to represent strike and dip. The “T” symbol below is used to represent strike and dip of an inclined surface, as in this illustration. Inclined surface 30° Horizontal plane Dip angle 30° Line of strike Water puddle The long line represents the line of strike. This short line points in the direction of dip, like the short hand of a clock. 30 The number is the degrees dip. + or These symbols indicate that the surface is horizontal. This symbol indicates that dip is 90° (vertical). Water puddle 4. This is how strike and dip would be represented on a porch chair. The seat is horizontal but the back is steeply inclined. Note that this is an oblique view like the illustration above and the block diagram in Figure 10.2. 5. This is the same porch chair viewed from directly above; same as a geologic map. Based on the north arrow, the strike is N 30° W or an azimuth direction of 330° 6. This inclined rock surface is partly under a water puddle. Strike of the inclined rock surface is the line formed where it intersects the horizontal water surface (shoreline). Dip points down towards the water, perpendicular strike. 7. Water flows downhill in the direction of dip. Strike is always perpendicuar to dip, so the strike line can be drawn relative to the water line. → Figure 1 Type here to search O o ! ? 2)) ENG 2:49 PM 5/7/2021 12.4 Strike and Dip (READ): 2021 X + o х – → с gcccd.instructure.com/courses/38861/pages/12-dot-4-strike-and-dip-read Like all lines, the strike will have two ends and therefore two different compass directions. Yet only one of those is necessary to uniquely describe the orientation of the line because the other is always in the exact opposite direction (1809). By convention, geologists always measure strike as the acute (

The Load of A River Stream Particles Creative Writing Paper - EssayLoop.

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