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Globalization, Internal Conflict & the Resource Curse Chapter 12 Key Ideas  Globalization promises advances in health, technology, and peace but it also presents challenges for public health  The most contentious working definition of globalization is that of trade liberalization, often imposed by the WTO  Poor governance exacerbates the potential for resources curses and civil conflict Globalization & Health  Globalization can facilitate migration, expanded social networks and the diffusion of ideas and cultures  Potential to bring new health technologies and advances to people who need them  Unintended side effects exist   More rapid disease transmission Financial opportunities for corporations that provide medicines or sell harmful products Antiglobalization  Some protest a narrowly defined version of globalization: trade liberalization    South Korean farmers protesting US beef imports Tuvalu residents requesting help against climate change Anarchist groups  Advocate for stronger international regulations on free trade Free Trade: Pros and Cons  Consumers can purchase highest quality goods for a given price   Some goods can improve health Cross-border trade may reduce civil conflict  Many nations have fragile markets   Subsidized goods from other nations can exacerbate unemployment and poverty Safety standards vary by country Global Governance & Health  Global governance is still relatively weak in a number of health-related areas    Environmental health and pollution control within and across borders Medication tracking to prevent antibiotic resistance or counterfeit drugs Pandemic spread of disease through travel Civil Conflict & Public Health  Major problem in global governance  Can involve global commodity markets, corrupt politicians, unscrupulous business partners  More than just injuries and death:      Displacement Infectious disease outbreaks Sexual assault/violence Malnutrition Mental health problems Resource Curse  Umbrella term for the ailments plaguing countries that have great natural wealth but do worse in terms of economic, social, and human development  Diamonds, oil  Contributors: government corruption locally and collusion globally, insufficient taxation, excessive spending, global markets, overreliance on commodity prices China in Africa  China has been important for economic development in Africa     Loans with market-rate interest Use of local labor >44% of aid in 2011 went to Africa Establishment of economic cooperation zones  Criticized for providing arms and ignoring environmental consequences of activities Niger Delta  Oil is a major export in southern Nigeria  25% of GDP in 1980s, >60% by 2000s  Lands taken from Ogoni people in 1950s led to conflict in the 1990s when the people demanded to be involved and the government struck back violently  Pervasive unemployment, ethnic tensions, displacement have fueled conflicts up to the present Natural Resources & Civil War  Conflict prevention often depends on good governance locally and globally  Civil war is ignited or prolonged in conditions that highlight economic grievances  Governments must regulate removal of resources and distribution of proceeds  Evidence-based policies to prevent civil conflict are sparse, but economic interventions hold promise


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