Globalization, Internal Conflict & the Resource Curse Chapter 12 Key Ideas Globalization promises advances in health, technology, and peace but it also presents challenges for public health The most contentious working definition of globalization is that of trade liberalization, often imposed by the WTO Poor governance exacerbates the potential for resources curses and civil conflict Globalization & Health Globalization can facilitate migration, expanded social networks and the diffusion of ideas and cultures Potential to bring new health technologies and advances to people who need them Unintended side effects exist More rapid disease transmission Financial opportunities for corporations that provide medicines or sell harmful products Antiglobalization Some protest a narrowly defined version of globalization: trade liberalization South Korean farmers protesting US beef imports Tuvalu residents requesting help against climate change Anarchist groups Advocate for stronger international regulations on free trade Free Trade: Pros and Cons Consumers can purchase highest quality goods for a given price Some goods can improve health Cross-border trade may reduce civil conflict Many nations have fragile markets Subsidized goods from other nations can exacerbate unemployment and poverty Safety standards vary by country Global Governance & Health Global governance is still relatively weak in a number of health-related areas Environmental health and pollution control within and across borders Medication tracking to prevent antibiotic resistance or counterfeit drugs Pandemic spread of disease through travel Civil Conflict & Public Health Major problem in global governance Can involve global commodity markets, corrupt politicians, unscrupulous business partners More than just injuries and death: Displacement Infectious disease outbreaks Sexual assault/violence Malnutrition Mental health problems Resource Curse Umbrella term for the ailments plaguing countries that have great natural wealth but do worse in terms of economic, social, and human development Diamonds, oil Contributors: government corruption locally and collusion globally, insufficient taxation, excessive spending, global markets, overreliance on commodity prices China in Africa China has been important for economic development in Africa Loans with market-rate interest Use of local labor >44% of aid in 2011 went to Africa Establishment of economic cooperation zones Criticized for providing arms and ignoring environmental consequences of activities Niger Delta Oil is a major export in southern Nigeria 25% of GDP in 1980s, >60% by 2000s Lands taken from Ogoni people in 1950s led to conflict in the 1990s when the people demanded to be involved and the government struck back violently Pervasive unemployment, ethnic tensions, displacement have fueled conflicts up to the present Natural Resources & Civil War Conflict prevention often depends on good governance locally and globally Civil war is ignited or prolonged in conditions that highlight economic grievances Governments must regulate removal of resources and distribution of proceeds Evidence-based policies to prevent civil conflict are sparse, but economic interventions hold promise
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