You will have at least 2 sources, one of which is the book Garbology your primary source. The other source should be found in the LAHC Library Databases.Create a Works Cited page to document all of your sources. Again, see the MLA for how to create a Works Cited and how to write your entries for all sources.Underline your thesis/claim statement.Give your essay a title.Develop your paragraphs. Use concrete, specific details and examples.Follow the Toumlin model (see template below).Write in 3rd person. This means he, she, it, they. Do not use 1st or 2nd person: I, me, mine, you, your, us, we, our, etc.Use formal, academic language. Contemplate word choice.Do NOT plagiarize in any form. Plagiarized essays will be penalized, and you will receive a 0 for the assignment.If you have questions about how to cite a source, ask early enough to get a timely response.Tips:Write in 3rd person: he, she, it, they, Americans, consumers, people, humans, etc.Spell out contractions.Consider language for a formal academic audience.Cut out words like “really,” “just,” “very,” “totally.”Choose sources wisely and use strong quotes that back up your position.Your quoted material should be no more than 20 % or your paper, so choose your sources wisely.Watch for wordiness. As writers, we strive to be clear and concise so that readers do not struggle to understand our writing.When you follow the template, take out the bracketed information and words like “Paragraph 1:”Due Dates:The Final Draft is due on the due date to be submitted through the assignment on Canvas.It must be typed and double-spaced, following the MLA format.You must include the Works Cited page at the end of your paper.Sample Toumlin Template Essay 1Paragraph 1:While reading Edward Humes’ book Garbology, it is clear that Americans [are/ are not] addicted to waste. There are several reasons for this assertion. [List reasons that you plan to explain in the rest of the paper. Each reason should be a separate sentence and introduced using emphatic order.] This reveals that … [explanation]. Therefore, [state thesis].Paragraph 2: The question at issue,[copy the question you have chosen word for word, with the question mark in place…?] The second paragraph is the question you are answering throughout your paper. To answer the question, you will incorporate the Stephen Toumlin model of Claim, Support, Warrant and Backing. It will look something Are Americans addicted to waste? [Insert question] First, American consumers [reason 1] …. When people … [explanation]. Also, consumers … [reason 2]. Americans must… [explanation]. More importantly, waste in America…[reason 3]. This means that Americans’ waste… [explanation]. In Garbology, Edward Humes explains, “[direct quote as evidence from primary source]” (page). This excerpt from the text proves that…[explanation of evidence]. In Joshua Reno’s Waste Away: Working and Living with a North American Landfill, Reno believes, “[direct quote as evidence from secondary source]” (Reno page). This illustrates… [explanation of evidence]. Therefore, Americans’ addiction to waste …[restate claim].Paragraph should be well-developed. Your explanations may be more than one sentence.If your paragraph becomes too long, you may have to break it up into another paragraph.Paragraph 3: Introduce and explain the opposing view. We cannot have an argument if it is not debatable. What is the opposing view? Explain and clarify the view opposed to your own. This should be at least five sentences in length.Paragraph 4:Refute the opposing view with your closed thesis sentence. Remember the closed thesis is your assertion with the reasons you will develop within the body of your paper. It should look something (use transition to move into this paragraph). Though some may claim that Americans are (or are not) addicted to waste, based on America’s landfills, Americans are (or are not) addicted to waste. Several reasons support this idea. The waste that Americans create …. which include _______________, _______________, and ______________. As a result, … America’s waste reveals… [explanation].The body paragraphs will develop and prove the reasons you have listed emphatically throughout your paper. Develop each paragraph thoroughly. Remember this is just a template. Develop ideas. NOTE: Paragraph 2 may need to be broken up into more than one paragraph.Paragraph 5 Conclusion: The conclusion paragraph will summarize and clarify the reasons and explanation used in the body of your paper. Do NOT cut and paste from previous sections of your paper.Works Cited: Your final page will be your Works Cited page which lists all of your sources. See below.**I used Joshua Reno as a secondary source, but you may use another source if you wish or if you cannot find Reno’s book. Please go to the LAHC library databases to look for Reno or other alternative sources. Using the first couple of sources you see on a Google search is not acceptable.Works CitedHumes, Edward. Garbology. New York, Avery Publishers, 2012. Print.Reno, Joshua. Waste Away: Working and Living with a North American Landfill. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2016.


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