1. What are the two main considerations in the decision whether or not to release one who is arrested while their case is pending? What is the main unfairness in the use of cash bonds while cases are pending? What other options have been created to limit the use of incarceration while still exerting some level of control over the defendant?
2. What is the basic purpose of pretrial diversion? What advantage would this have over using correctional services post-conviction? Give an example of how pretrial diversion might be used.
3. In a sentence or two, describe the meaning of each of the five generally accepted purposes for imposing criminal sanctions.
4. What is the difference between determinate and indeterminate sentencing? What advantages are afforded by each? What are the pros and cons of using a sentencing guidelines system?
5. What did John Augustus and Alexander Maconochie have in common in their overall philosophy about justice, and in the resistance that they faced? What innovations eventually occurred based on the ideas of each? In what main ways might we say that the ideas of Augustus have gotten lost along the way? Give examples.
6. Describe the main goals and procedures of probation supervision. Upon what does probation rely to get probationers to do what they are supposed to do? What is meant by a technical violation of probation? Give an example. Why are technical violations seen as being closely related to probation officer discretion than are new arrest violations?
7. What is meant by specific (also called special) conditions of probation?” Give three examples of typical special conditions of probation. What benefits are gained in using special conditions of probation? In what ways might the overuse of special conditions of probation result in inordinately high probation violation rates? Explain by using an example.
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