Running Head: LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 1 Literature Review and Problem Statement Introduction In the health care sector, one of the main issues which have been achieved and witnessed over the years is reduced communication and connection between the nurses or practitioners with the community as well as the ultimate beneficiaries. One of the main problems that have been witnessed in various healthcare facilities across the country today is the reduced connection between the practitioners and the beneficiaries. Low and improper communication approaches have undermined the abilities of public health officials to guarantee better outcomes in the long run. Numerous studies have been completed to address the problem of poor communication in public health. One of the main conclusions that have been arrived at includes the implementation of the right leadership approaches in the respective areas of application. The significance of the adoption of the right leadership mechanisms is that it helps in the bringing of the gap that is created by reduced communication and hence poor interactions in the respective areas of application. Through leadership, the respective stakeholders can create a reliable approach for the improvement of the ultimate platform for not only generating but also sharing visions. In this context, sharing ideas has been seen as one of the ways that have been used to create the ultimate platform for improving the desired performance and service delivery. Some of the problems that leadership in public health could help in reducing or eliminating include lack of alignment and clear vision, poor execution of ideas and reduced accountability in the workplace. These problems have, in the long run, resulting in diverse adverse effects on the entire healthcare industry. This project explores the role played by leadership in public health in the elimination of the significant problems associated with poor performance and service delivery in the long run. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 2 The primary motivation behind the creation of this project is based on the understanding that diverse factors can be used to prevent the occurrence of problems such as poor communication, reduced connection to a shared vision and but not limited to the challenge of lack of alignment and accountability. The first section addresses the literature review of 10 related studies which speak about the role of leadership in public health. Literature review Salmela, Koskinen & Eriksson (2017) carried out a study which focused on the analysis of the central role that nurse leaders play in the creation of a reliable platform for improved connectivity and performance of the healthcare sector. This study focuses on the analysis of the role of nurse leaders as managers in the promotion of ethical standards and practices in the respective workplaces. The importance of this study in this context is that it helps in the identification of the main factors which revolve around the identification of primary challenges that healthcare facilities and organizations encounter on the day to day basis. These challenges can be eliminated by the use of the right leadership approaches such as ethics as far as nurse interventions are concerned. The study offers a chance for the audience to explore the importance of nurse leadership and management in creating an accommodating workplace which is marked with increased collaboration and communication. On the other hand, a study completed by Salmela, Eriksson & Fagerström (2013) focused on the analysis of the main perceptions that nurse leaders exhibited towards their role in facilitating and supporting change in the respective organizations. In this context, the study identified that nurse leaders often felt that they were being left out in the organizational change management practices leading to poor management in the long run. This study outlines the LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 3 importance of nurse leaders in the inclusion in the change management processes to eliminate some of the leadership challenges witnessed in the long term. From another dimension, research completed by Al-Sawai, (2013) outlined the main issues which have been identified affecting healthcare leaders and managers. For instance, the study focused on topics such as the application of the right leadership approaches in the management of operations carried out in the healthcare sector. The main focus of the study was to identify the current status of the use of the right leadership strategies in the management of the healthcare facilities in the long run. The study concludes that there are diverse models of leadership that can be applied to the healthcare sector. However, the right leadership approach to be used should focus on the creation and maintenance of dynamic links within the organization. There is a rising gap in public health leadership across the globe today. This conclusion is according to a study that was completed by Shickle et al., (2014) claiming that the criticism that has been directed towards public health leadership has been as a result of lack of an understanding by the outsiders. The approaches and strategies used in public health leadership may differ from those applied by the other areas of application in the economy. The study analyzes some of the main factors and resources which are used by public health leaders to achieve maximum performance and resolution of the existing problems. Ghiasipour, Mosadeghrad, Arab & Jaafaripooyan, (2017) acknowledge the existence of significant challenges in the public health sector. The study claims that some of the main problems affecting the operations of various health centres and organizations today can be categorized into five major categories. These categories are the organizational structure, human resources, nature of work, empowerment of the employees and the role of leaders as well as the context. These areas are crucial in that they help in supporting the implemented visions aimed at LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 4 responding to the growing challenges. The lack of a reliable leadership approach has been associated with these challenges in the long run. Leaders in public health must exhibit the right attributes to undertake the day to day tasks. In many healthcare facilities, leadership attribute does not matter because of the lack of sufficient insight into the role played by leaders in solving significant problems that may arise in the workplace. In this context, leaders in such areas of application have failed to address and cope with emerging challenges in the industry. While communication is one of the main difficulties witnessed, poor leadership abilities have reduced the effectiveness of the approaches used in the long run. The study claims that such a trend in the failure of the leaders in public health to create the right priorities has resulted to the creation of the gap that questions the effectiveness of public health leadership. Popescu & Predescu (2016) carried out a study that complements the ideas presented above about the effectiveness and role of leadership in public health. For instance, the study outlines that leadership plays a crucial role in the creation of the ultimate platform for addressing some of the complex issues affecting public health. However, items such as the skills and competencies of these leaders have not been highlighted as it relates to the effectiveness of the approaches used. The central gap that this study fails to cover is the role of leadership styles, attributes and skills in approaching the existing problems in the public health sector. From another dimension, Brownson, Baker, Deshpande & Gillespie (2017) carried out a study that focused on the analysis of the public health approaches using the aspects of evidencebased practices and interventions. In this context, the study focused on the evaluation of the main issues which should be explored as far as evidence-based leadership in public health is LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 5 concerned. Again, this study does not associate the right attributes of leadership to the resolution of the existing public health problems. Over the years, there has been a call for the implementation of new interventions to facilitate the promotion of public health and wellbeing of the general community. In this context, the study completed by Fraser, Castrucci & Harper (2017) focuses on the analysis of some of the main issues which public health leadership and management can resolve in the long run. For instance, the study claims that the adoption of the right interventions is dependent on the ability of the public health stakeholders to understand the best practices to use. This study offers a glimpse of the role played by the right leadership strategies in fostering public health and wellbeing of the underlying communities. Finally, Moodie, (2016) provides a study that focused on the role of the right skills in the implementation of strategies meant to resolve public health problems witnessed today, such as communication. In this analysis, this study is the only one that focuses on the exploration of the role and importance of leadership skills in public health as far as the achievement of the desired outcomes is concerned. Theoretical gaps in the literature From the analysis given above, the main issue of concern which has been witnessed includes the importance of leadership in public health. Multiple resources have addressed the issue of leadership in public health based on their role in the rectification of the main challenges witnessed in the community. However, the central gap that has been witnessed today is that only two studies have addressed the issue of the role and significance of leadership skills in addressing emerging issues in public health. This gap offers a chance to carry more research to LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 6 understand the best leadership skills that should be assumed by the public health leaders to address the existing and emerging issues in the community. Problem statement Over the years, there has been a rising challenge of the implementation of new ideas and visions in public health sectors. The primary source of the problems in this context includes poor communication amongst the respective stakeholders such as nurses among others. Leadership has been seen as one of the main approaches which would be implemented to overcome these challenges. However, limited studies have been carried out to analyze the connection between specific leadership styles on the effectiveness of the resulting methods and leaders. Hence, this project outlines the past literature on leadership in public health, identifying the gap in the long run. The sections above identified the central gap as the lack of enough research on the connection between individual leadership styles on the resulting approaches used by public health leaders. The identification of the role played by strategic leadership skills may help in the documentation of interventions that could be adopted to foster organizational and community change. The adoption of the right leadership styles and attributes will play a crucial role in the creation of the ultimate platform for promoting positive change in not only the respective organizations but also the community and industry as a whole. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 7 References Al-Sawai, A. (2013). The leadership of healthcare professionals: where do we stand?. Oman medical journal, 28(4), 285. Brownson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Deshpande, A. D., & Gillespie, K. N. (2017). Evidence-based public health. Oxford university press. Figueroa, C. A., Harrison, R., Chauhan, A., & Meyer, L. (2019). Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally: a rapid review. BMC health services research, 19(1), 239. Fraser, M., Castrucci, B., & Harper, E. (2017). Public health leadership and management in the era of public health 3.0. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 23(1), 90-92. Ghiasipour, M., Mosadeghrad, A. M., Arab, M., & Jaafaripooyan, E. (2017). Leadership challenges in health care organizations: The case of Iranian hospitals. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 31, 96. Moodie, R. (2016). Learning about self: leadership skills for public health. Journal of public health research, 5(1). Popescu, G. H., & Predescu, V. (2016). The role of leadership in public health. American Journal of Medical Research, 3(1), 273. Salmela, S., Eriksson, K., & Fagerström, L. (2013). Nurse leaders’ perceptions of an approaching organizational change. Qualitative Health Research, 23(5), 689-699. Salmela, S., Koskinen, C., & Eriksson, K. (2017). Nurse leaders as managers of ethically sustainable caring cultures. Journal of advanced nursing, 73(4), 871-882. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 8 Shickle, D., Day, M., Smith, K., Zakariasen, K., Moskol, J., & Oliver, T. (2014). Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda. Journal of Public Health, 36(4), 562-567. Nurses’ participation in personal knowledge transfer: the role of leader– member exchange (LMX) and structural empowerment ALICIA DAVIES RN, MScN CAROL A. WONG RN, PhD HEATHER LASCHINGER RN, PhD, FAAN, FCAHS First published: 13 July 2011 https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01269.x Citations: 25 Carol A.Wong Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing Faculty of Health Sciences Rm. H27, Health Sciences Addition (HSA) The University of Western Ontario 1151 Richmond Street London ON N6A 5C1 Canada E‐mail: [email protected] SECTIONS PDF TOOLS SHARE Abstract DAVIES A., WONG C. A. & LASCHINGER H. (2011) Journal of Nursing Management19, 632–643 Nurses’ participation in personal knowledge transfer: the role of leader–member exchange (LMX) and structural empowerment Aim The purpose of this study was to test Kanter’s theory by examining relationships among structural empowerment, leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and nurses’ participation in personal knowledge transfer activities. Background Despite the current emphasis on evidence‐based practice in health care, research suggests that implementation of research findings in everyday clinical practice is unsystematic at best with mixed outcomes. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of data collected using a non‐experimental, predictive mailed survey design. A random sample of 400 registered nurses who worked in urban tertiary care hospitals in Ontario yielded a final sample of 234 for a 58.5% response rate. Results Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the combination of LMX and structural empowerment accounted for 9.1% of the variance in personal knowledge transfer but only total empowerment was a significant independent predictor of knowledge transfer (β = 0.291, t = 4.012, P

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